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Sustainable Hotel Design. Presentation 3 Supply Analysis Group 5. Previous Presentations. 1 st presentation Site analysis Site Selection 2 nd presentation Passive design Demand reduction. Where We Are Now. North. 1 st level. Site C Initial Building Design. Ground level.

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sustainable hotel design
Sustainable Hotel Design

Presentation 3

Supply Analysis

Group 5

previous presentations
Previous Presentations
  • 1st presentation
    • Site analysis
    • Site Selection
  • 2nd presentation
    • Passive design
    • Demand reduction
where we are now
Where We Are Now

North

1st level

  • Site C
  • Initial Building Design

Ground level

our aims for this presentation
Our Aims for This Presentation
  • Supply analysis
    • Water
    • Electricity
    • Heat
    • Gas
the result
The Result
  • 62% less electrical energy than an average hotel
  • 13% less combustion fuel than an average hotel
water storage
Water Storage

(Full Capacity)

water supply
Water Supply

Possible Supply Sources

  • Stream
  • Scottish Water
  • Rainwater collection
  • Greywater collection
reclaimed water
Reclaimed Water
  • Greywater Storage
    • Toilet flushing 3 days
    • Car washing
  • Rainwater 20 days
    • Toilet flushing
    • Car washing
    • Plant watering
    • Laundry
reclaimed water11
Reclaimed Water
  • Rainwater Yield

= Collection Area x Average Annual Rainwater Yield

x Run-off coefficient x fractional collector efficiency

= 1530m^2 x 2277.8mm x 0.8 x 0.8

= 2,230,422 litres/year

= 6,111 litres/day

  • Greywater Yield

= bathroom use in morning x no. of people

= 80 litres x 70

= 5,600 litres/day (full capacity)

reclaimed water12
Reclaimed Water
  • Total Reclaimed Water

= 11,711 litres

  • 55 wcs
    • 180 litres storage per wc/day

= 9,900 litres

supply systems
Supply Systems
  • Power
    • Wind
    • Small scale hydro
    • Photovoltaics
  • Heat
    • Ground source heat pumps
    • Solar thermal collectors
  • Combined Heat and Power
    • Biomass
justifying chp
Justifying CHP
  • Sustainable design- reduced emissions
  • Matches hotel demand profile well
  • Efficient + cost effective
  • Secure and reliable supply
justifying biomass
Justifying Biomass
  • ‘Carbon Neutral’ Process
  • Can be self sufficient or locally sourced
  • Lesser transport requirements (compared against fossil fuels)
  • Encouraged by government and council
operation installation strategies
Operation/installation Strategies
  • Integration with other technologies: PV, Hydro, boiler.

Hydro

GSHP

PVT

Pool

CHP

Boilers

economics
Economics
  • Heat/Power ratio 4:1
  • 1.5kg/kWhe
  • Wood Chip market value £40/tonne
  • Fuel price = 6.0p/kWhe
  • O+M = 1.5p/kWhe
  • Total Price = 7.5p/kWhe
power requirements
Power Requirements
  • Electrical Demand- Limiting factor
  • Power Req. = 55 MWh
  • Operational period 8000 h/yr
  • CHP size = 15kWe
  • Price = £1275/kW
  • Total = £19 125
simple price analysis
Simple Price analysis
  • Electricity produced = 55 MWh
  • Value of electricity = £3500
  • Heat produced = 220 MWh
  • Value of heat = £4000
  • Savings per annum = £3750
  • Cost of CHP = £19125
  • Payback period =

5.1 years

slide20

Bruce Henry

  • Renewable supply options for the hotel
  • Wave and tidal energy
  • Solar resource
  • Wind resource
  • Hydro resource
wave tidal power
Wave/Tidal Power
  • Discount waves and

tidal as:

    • The bay is sheltered, cost for cabling
    • Expensive
    • Unreliable
    • Industry is in its infancy
comparison of devices
Comparison of devices
  • kWh/m2/year

Gives an idea of power size ratio

  • £ per kWh/year

Give an idea of instillation cost and payback period

solar power
Solar power
  • Photovoltaic devices
  • Insolation

2kWh/m²/day

(efficiency of 18%)

  • 130 kWh/m²/year
  • Approx £900/m2
  • £6.16 perkWh/year
  • 25 years
slide24

Wind Resource

α = 1/7 Vmean=6.2ms-1 Pmean=279.8W/m2 Pbetz=165.1W/m2

Total available to wind turbines = 1446kWh/m2 per year

vertical axis wind turbine
Vertical axis wind turbine

Rating:6000W

Frontal area = 5 x 3m

11,000 kWh per year

(733kWh/m2)

Cost: £30,000

£2.72 per kWh for year

ducted wind turbine
Ducted Wind Turbine
  • Size of device with is 1.5m x
  • 1m
  • Hence for these devices
  • (735.3 kWh/m2)
  • Power coefficients of about
  • 0.3 have been achieved for
  • a 0.5 meter diameter.
  • Cost is approx £800
  • £1.08 per kWh/year
horizontal axis wind turbine
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

600 Watt wind turbine/generator £1,845

Diameter 2.55mOutput 450kWh/m2

Total 2300kWh –

£0.80 per kWh per year

1500 Watt wind turbine/generator £3,655

Diameter 3.5m Output 769kWh/m2

Total 7400kWh-

£0.49 per kWh per year

6000 Watt wind turbine/generator £7,765

Diameter 5.5m Output 816kWh/m2

Total 19400kWh-

£0.40 per kWh per year

15000 Watt wind turbine/generator £14,900

Diameter 9m Output 762kWh/m2

Total 48500kWh-

£0.31 per kWh per year

micro hydro
Micro Hydro
  • Water 800 times denser than air,
  • Constant power source
  • Single nozzle version for heads from

34 metres and power output of 8kW.

Flow requirement  40 l/sec

  • £20K estimated, 70MWh per year

available

  • £0.28 per kWh/year
summary30
Summary

Micro hydro will be used to meet as much of the supply demand as possible. (70MWh/year)

Proven 1500w turbines will make up difference. (14.8MWh/year)

Total cost of installation = £27.5K

Batteries will be incorporated to store power from the turbines

solar thermal heating
Solar Thermal Heating
  • NW Scotland - produce around 300kW.h per m²

annually.

  • Building orientation - little defect on output within 45 degrees of south. Optimum tilt 33 degrees, little defect 15 degrees either way (pitch of roof).
  • Solar collectors cost from £300-£700 per m². 2-4m² typical domestic system costs around £3000 and

delivers around 1000kW.h per year meeting around

half hot water demand.

  • Pumped indirect system would be the most effective to install and would prevent freezing.
  • Could possibly be used for space heating, water

heating and heating the swimming pool.

solar thermal space heating
Solar Thermal Space Heating

Solar Thermal

Underfloor Heating

Seasonal Performance:

  • Summer around 4kWh/m² (daily average)
  • Winter around

1kWh/m² (daily average)

Space heating requires large collector areas to supply heat in winter when it is needed most.

(200-300m² for hotel)

solar thermal water heating
Solar Thermal Water Heating
  • Used to preheat hot water for CHP, large collector area required to cope with high hot water demand
  • Collector area

required to be

larger than

half the

swimming

pool to heat

it (would cost

around £30k)

ground source heat pump
Ground Source Heat Pump
  • A 20kW heat pump would be required to provide 100 000kWh per year
  • Cost around £12 000
  • Provides 1/3 of hotels heating
  • Ground temperature relatively constant

around 11°C (sea temperature varies 5- 14 °C annually). Efficiency drops when temperature drops in winter, when it is needed most.

ground source heat pump35
Ground Source Heat Pump
  • COP of 3 - needing around 7kW electrical input
  • Underfloor heating gives a higher COP as it works at a lower temperature (30-35°C) however radiators (50°C )give individual occupant control in bedrooms.
  • Space available around site to dig a trench to lay horizontal ground arrays (cheaper than a borehole).
  • GSHP connected to either five 50m closed loop horizontal ground arrays or a 200m trench for a spiral horizontal array.
heating supply conclusions
Heating Supply Conclusions
  • Solar thermal heating - not cost effective, require large collector areas and expensive capital costs to meet 100 000kWh annual demand.
  • GSHP – more financially viable for meeting heating demand.

Require top up heating from CHP if radiators are to be used, resulting in a lower COP.