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Scalable Visual Comparison of Biological Trees and Sequences

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  1. Scalable Visual Comparison of Biological Trees and Sequences Tamara Munzner University of British Columbia Department of Computer Science Imager

  2. Outline • Accordion Drawing • information visualization technique • TreeJuxtaposer • tree comparison • SequenceJuxtaposer • sequence comparison • PRISAD • generic accordion drawing framework

  3. Accordion Drawing • rubber-sheet navigation • stretch out part of surface, the rest squishes • borders nailed down • Focus+Context technique • integrated overview, details • old idea • [Sarkar et al 93], [Robertson et al 91] • guaranteed visibility • marks always visible • important for scalability • new idea • [Munzner et al 03]

  4. Guaranteed Visibility • marks are always visible • easy with small datasets 4

  5. Guaranteed Visibility Challenges • hard with larger datasets • reasons a mark could be invisible

  6. Guaranteed Visibility Challenges • hard with larger datasets • reasons a mark could be invisible • outside the window • AD solution: constrained navigation

  7. Guaranteed Visibility Challenges • hard with larger datasets • reasons a mark could be invisible • outside the window • AD solution: constrained navigation • underneath other marks • AD solution: avoid 3D

  8. Guaranteed Visibility Challenges • hard with larger datasets • reasons a mark could be invisible • outside the window • AD solution: constrained navigation • underneath other marks • AD solution: avoid 3D • smaller than a pixel • AD solution: smart culling

  9. Guaranteed Visibility: Small Items Naïve culling may not draw all marked items GV no GV Guaranteed visibility of marks No guaranteed visibility

  10. Guaranteed Visibility: Small Items Naïve culling may not draw all marked items GV no GV Guaranteed visibility of marks No guaranteed visibility

  11. Outline • Accordion Drawing • information visualization technique • TreeJuxtaposer • tree comparison • SequenceJuxtaposer • sequence comparison • PRISAD • generic accordion drawing framework

  12. Phylogenetic/Evolutionary Tree M Meegaskumbura et al., Science 298:379 (2002)

  13. Common Dataset Size Today M Meegaskumbura et al., Science 298:379 (2002)

  14. Future Goal: 10M node Tree of Life Animals Plants You are here Protists Fungi David Hillis, Science 300:1687 (2003)

  15. Paper Comparison: Multiple Trees focus context

  16. TreeJuxtaposer • side by side comparison of evolutionary trees • [video] • video/software downloadable from http://olduvai.sf.net/tj

  17. TJ Contributions • first interactive tree comparison system • automatic structural difference computation • guaranteed visibility of marked areas • scalable to large datasets • 250,000 to 500,000 total nodes • all preprocessing subquadratic • all realtime rendering sublinear • scalable to large displays (4000 x 2000) • introduced • guaranteed visibility, accordion drawing

  18. Structural Comparison rayfinned fish rayfinned fish salamander lungfish frog salamander mammal frog bird turtle crocodile snake lizard lizard snake crocodile turtle mammal lungfish bird

  19. Matching Leaf Nodes rayfinned fish rayfinned fish salamander lungfish frog salamander mammal frog bird turtle crocodile snake lizard lizard snake crocodile turtle mammal lungfish bird

  20. Matching Leaf Nodes rayfinned fish rayfinned fish salamander lungfish frog salamander mammal frog bird turtle crocodile snake lizard lizard snake crocodile turtle mammal lungfish bird

  21. Matching Leaf Nodes rayfinned fish rayfinned fish salamander lungfish frog salamander mammal frog bird turtle crocodile snake lizard lizard snake crocodile turtle mammal lungfish bird

  22. Matching Interior Nodes rayfinned fish rayfinned fish salamander lungfish frog salamander mammal frog bird turtle crocodile snake lizard lizard snake crocodile turtle mammal lungfish bird

  23. Matching Interior Nodes rayfinned fish rayfinned fish salamander lungfish frog salamander mammal frog bird turtle crocodile snake lizard lizard snake crocodile turtle mammal lungfish bird

  24. Matching Interior Nodes rayfinned fish rayfinned fish salamander lungfish frog salamander mammal frog bird turtle crocodile snake lizard lizard snake crocodile turtle bird lungfish mammal

  25. Matching Interior Nodes rayfinned fish rayfinned fish salamander lungfish frog salamander mammal frog ? bird turtle crocodile snake lizard lizard snake crocodile turtle mammal lungfish bird

  26. Previous Work • tree comparison • RF distance [Robinson and Foulds 81] • perfect node matching [Day 85] • creation/deletion [Chi and Card 99] • leaves only [Graham and Kennedy 01]

  27. A A B C C B D D E F F E Similarity Score: S(m,n) T1 T2 n m

  28. A A B C C B D D E F F E Best Corresponding Node T1 T2 0 0 0 • computable in O(n log2 n) • linked highlighting 0 0 2/6 0 1/3 1/2 2/3 BCN(m) = n 1/2 m

  29. A A B C C B D D E F F E Marking Structural Differences T1 T2 • Matches intuition n m

  30. Outline • Accordion Drawing • information visualization technique • TreeJuxtaposer • tree comparison • SequenceJuxtaposer • sequence comparison • PRISAD • generic accordion drawing framework

  31. Genomic Sequences • multiple aligned sequences of DNA • now commonly browsed with web apps • zoom and pan with abrupt jumps • previous work • Ensembl [Hubbard 02], UCSC Genome Browser [Kent 02], NCBI [Wheeler 02] • investigate benefits of accordion drawing • showing focus areas in context • smooth transitions between states • guaranteed visibility for globally visible landmarks

  32. SequenceJuxtaposer • comparing multiple aligned gene sequences • provides searching, difference calculation • [video] • video/software downloadable from http://olduvai.sf.net/tj

  33. Searching • search for motifs • protein/codon search • regular expressions supported • results marked with guaranteed visibility

  34. Differences • explore differences between aligned pairs • slider controls difference threshold in realtime • results marked with guaranteed visibility

  35. SJ Contributions • fluid tree comparison system • showing multiple focus areas in context • guaranteed visibility of marked areas • thresholded differences, search results • scalable to large datasets • 2M nucleotides • all realtime rendering sublinear

  36. Outline • Accordion Drawing • information visualization technique • TreeJuxtaposer • tree comparison • SequenceJuxtaposer • sequence comparison • PRISAD • generic accordion drawing framework

  37. Goals of PRISAD generic AD infrastructure tree and sequence applications PRITree is TreeJuxtaposer using PRISAD PRISeq is SequenceJuxtaposer using PRISAD efficiency faster rendering: minimize overdrawing smaller memory footprint correctness rendering with no gaps: eliminate overculling

  38. PRISAD Navigation • generic navigation infrastructure • application independent • uses deformable grid • split lines • Grid lines define object boundaries • horizontal and vertical separate • Independently movable

  39. Split line hierarchy • data structure supports navigation, picking, drawing • two interpretations • linear ordering • hierarchical subdivision A B C D E F

  40. PRISAD Architecture • world-space discretization • preprocessing • initializing data structures • placing geometry • screen-space rendering • frame updating • analyzing navigation state • drawing geometry

  41. World-space Discretization interplay between infrastructure and application

  42. 2 4 5 1 3 6 7 8 9 Laying Out & Initializing • application-specific layout of dataset • non-overlapping objects • initialize PRISAD split line hierarchies • objects aligned by split lines A A C C A T T T

  43. 2 4 5 5 2 1 3 6 7 8 4 9 4 Laying Out & Initializing • application-specific layout of dataset • non-overlapping objects • initialize PRISAD split line hierarchies • objects aligned by split lines A A C C A T T T

  44. Gridding • each geometric object assigned its four encompassing split line boundaries A A C C A T T T

  45. 1 2 Map 2 5 2 2 1 5 3 6 5 2 6 6 3 4 8 8 8 4 9 9 5 5 9 Mapping • PRITree mapping initializes leaf references • bidirectional O(1) reference between leaves and split lines Split line Leaf index 4 1 3 7

  46. Screen-space Rendering control flow to draw each frame

  47. 1 [1,2] 2 3 { [1,2], [3,4], [5] } [3,4] 4 5 [5] Partitioning • partition object set into bite-sized ranges • using current split line screen-space positions • required for every frame • subdivision stops if region smaller than 1 pixel • or if range contains only 1 object Queue of ranges

  48. 1 [1,2] 2 { [1,2], [3,4], [5] } 3 [3,4] 4 { [3,4], [5], [1,2] } ordered queue 5 [5] Seeding • reordering range queue result from partition • marked regions get priority in queue • drawn first to provide landmarks

  49. Drawing Single Range • each enqueued object range drawn according to application geometry • selection for trees • aggregation for sequences

  50. PRITree Range Drawing • select suitable leaf in each range • draw path from leaf to the root • ascent-based tree drawing • efficiency: minimize overdrawing • only draw one path per range 1 2 { [3,4], [5], [1,2] } 3 [3,4] 4 5