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Pulp and Paper Processes for Sustainable Production. Keith Larson. History of Paper Making. 105 A.D. Ts'ai Lun, a Chinese court official, invented paper mulberry bark, hemp and rags with water Paper was first produced in Egypt around 900 A.D. England early in the 14th Century .

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history of paper making
History of Paper Making
  • 105 A.D. Ts'ai Lun, a Chinese court official, invented paper

mulberry bark, hemp and rags with water

  • Paper was first produced in Egypt around 900 A.D.
  • England early in the 14th Century

To this point all paper and books were produced by hand

history of paper making3
History of Paper Making
  • Gutenberg Press in 1436
  • On September 30, 1452 Guttenberg's Bible was published

The printing press allowed

printed materials to be

produced at a greater rate

thus increasing the demand

for paper

history of paper making4
History of Paper Making
  • First North American paper mill in 1690 near Philadelphia
  • America's first writing papers were produced by collecting, separating, and cleaning old cloth rags
  • The paper was made in single sheets
history of paper making5
History of Paper Making
  • 1798, Nicholas-Louis Robert of France invented a paper making machine that produced paper on an endless wire screen
  • Further developed in England by Brian Donkin
  • Not put into service until 1804
history of paper making6
History of Paper Making

The Fourdrinier

1st Fourdrinier machine in the US, 1827

history of paper making7
History of Paper Making

Two major advancements in pulping were developed in the late 1800s

1866

American Benjamin Tilghman developed the sulfite pulping process

Dominant pulping process until the 1930s

1879

German chemist, C. F. Dahl, developed the Kraft pulping process

1930s dominant pulping process and still is today

advantages of the kraft process
Advantages of the Kraft Process
  • The majority of the chemicals used in the pulping process are recoverable for use in further pulping operations
  • Large amounts of energy are produced in the recovery boilers during the recovery process
  • The Kraft process can pulp pine trees
slide9

Ocala National Forest, Dec. 1998

Pine trees are abundant throughout much of the United States. The Kraft process allowed the United States to become a major producer of paper products. However, the Kraft process has created environmental problems

the modern paper making process
The Modern Paper Making Process

The process of making paper begins far from the paper mill itself

Clearcut in Oregon's Coast Range

the modern paper making process11
The Modern Paper Making Process

Paper Making Process Overview [Chesterton, 2004]

the modern paper making process12
The Modern Paper Making Process

Wood Yard [Chesterton, 2004]

the modern paper making process13
The Modern Paper Making Process

Five Methods of pulping

  • Mechanical Pulping
  • Chemimechanical
  • Thermomechanical
  • Chemimechanical and Thermomechanical Pulping (CTMP)
  • Chemical Pulping
the modern paper making process14
The Modern Paper Making Process

The chemical method is the most popular because it produces a higher quality paper than mechanical pulping

The most popular method of pulp production is the Kraft process, producing nearly 85% of all pulp in the United States

This will be the focus of the pulping description

the modern paper making process15
The Modern Paper Making Process

Chesterton Pulp Digester [Chesterton, 2004]

the modern paper making process16
The Modern Paper Making Process

Chesterton Pulp washers [Chesterton, 2004]

the modern paper making process17
The Modern Paper Making Process

Chesterton Bleach Plant [Chesterton, 2004]

the modern paper making process18
The Modern Paper Making Process

Paper Machine [Chesterton, 2004]

the modern paper making process19
The Modern Paper Making Process

Recovery Evaporators [Chesterton, 2004]

the modern paper making process20
The Modern Paper Making Process

Recovery Boiler [Chesterton, 2004]

the modern paper making process21
The Modern Paper Making Process

Recovery Causticizing [Chesterton, 2004]

the modern paper making process22
The Modern Paper Making Process

Water Treatment [Chesterton, 2004]

the problems and solutions
The Problems and Solutions

The pulp and paper industry came into its own during a period when the environmental effects of chemical plants were not well understood, and discharges were not well regulated

The operation of a pulp and paper mill creates many environmental concerns

the problems and solutions24

Brush Creek, Private Land, Oregon

The Problems and Solutions
  • One of the very first impacts of the paper industry was the deforestation of large tracts of land in the early 1900s
  • Today the paper companies practice a process of sustainable forestry
the problems and solutions25
The Problems and Solutions

The Sustainable Forest Initiative program was developed in 1994 by the American Forest & Paper Association to ensure forests are protected

“responsible environmental practices and sound business practices can be integrated to the benefit of landowners, shareholders, customers and the people they serve” [aboutsfi, 2004]

the problems and solutions26
The Problems and Solutions
  • For every tree harvested today, the paper companies are planting five seedlings
  • There is now more forestland than in 1970
  • The Sustainable Forest Initiative has been a success
the problems and solutions27
The Problems and Solutions

Many environmental concerns surround water usage

  • Release of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

and Sludge

  • Creation of Dioxins and Furans
  • BOD, COD, TSS
the problems and solutions28
The Problems and Solutions

Hydrogen Sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas that smells like rotten eggs

At elevated levels, it can irritate the eyes and respiratory system

It can be deadly at very high levels (greater than 500,000 parts per billion)

the problems and solutions29
The Problems and Solutions
  • No current Federal Limits on H2S
  • In January 2000, EPA issued a Federal Register notice announcing H2S is one of the chemicals for which EPA is developing a health assessment
  • Individual States are setting limits
the problems and solutions30
The Problems and Solutions

Dioxins and Furans

  • Most toxic chemicals known to science
  • The most toxic compound is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or TCDD
  • Any process that uses chlorine can change or generate chlorinated dioxins and furans
  • White Paper bleaching uses Chlorine
the problems and solutions32
The Problems and Solutions

Reduction of Wastewater

  • Reduce the demand for the high quality bright-white paper
  • For “lower quality” papers use a combination of other chemicals in the bleach process (oxygen for example)
  • Do a better job of pulping the wood
the problems and solutions33
The Problems and Solutions

Ash and smoke, byproducts of burning the black liquor and fuel in the recovery boiler and power boiler, escapes thru the smoke stacks

the problems and solutions34
The Problems and Solutions
  • Improved electrostatic precipitators are being installed to help prevent the release of ash and smoke into the atmosphere
  • The process of concentrating the black liquor has been improved
  • Use cleaner burning fuels
hope for the future
Hope for the Future
  • Still have a long way to go to prevent any environmental impact
  • Operating a paper mill is a balancing act

Cost

Environment

Quality

Time

hope for the future36
Hope for the Future

Advances Toward Sustainability

  • Sustainable Forest Initiative Program
  • Recovery of Process Chemicals
  • Recycling of Process Water
  • Reduction of Dioxin Production
  • Make use of by-product Residue

Tall Oil – used in paints, perfume, cosmetics

Turpentine

hope for the future37
Hope for the Future

“responsible environmental practices and sound business practices can be integrated to the benefit of landowners, shareholders, customers and the people they serve”

references
References
  • http://www.americanlands.org/forestweb/photos.htm
  • http://www.aboutsfi.org/about.asp , 2004.
  • http://www.afandpa.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Pulp_and_Paper/Paper_-_the_history_and_making/Paper_-_the_history_and_making.htm , 2004.
  • http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=20797, (EPA/600/C-01/012, March, 2001)
  • http://www.chesterton.com/pulp-paper/ , 2004.
  • http://www.linde.com/en/en.jsp ,2004.
  • http://www.paperhall.org/info/glossary.html , 2004.
  • Profile of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Sector in Georgia, 1993, http://www.ganet.org/dnr/p2ad/pblcations/pulp/page1.html
  • World Bank. 1996. “Pollution Prevention and Abatement: Pulp and Paper Mills.” Draft Technical Background Document. The Environment Department, Washington, D.C.
  • World Bank. 1998. “Pollution Prevention and Abatement: Pulp and Paper Mills.” Darft Technical Background Document. The Environment Department, Washington, D.C.