islamic gunpowder empires ch 2 4 n.
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  2. The Beginning of the Ottomans • By 1300, the Byzantine Empire had begun to shrink • Mongols had destroyed previous Muslim kingdoms like the Seljuk Turks • Anatolia was inhabited by nomadic Turks with a long history of invasion • Anatolian Turks saw themselves as ghazis, or warriors for Islam (think of them like the Christian Crusaders) • Turkish ghazis followed a strict Islamic code of behavior and wanted to take land from the infidels (unbelievers)

  3. The Beginning of the Ottomans • Osman Bey was first great leader who built a small Turkish state in Anatolia 1300-1326 • Territory expanded through conquest • Success of Ottomans based on use of gunpowder and highly trained military • One of the first to use cannons to break city walls • Ottomans continued to expand into Byzantine territory and leader claimed the title of sultan (overlord) • Ottomans were tolerant of people they conquered

  4. Tamerlane (Timur the Lame) • Ottoman expansion was only disrupted by Tamerlane, a powerful Central Asian warlord • Conquered Russia and Persia • Burned Baghdad • Expanded into northern India • Timur defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara in 1402 and Ottoman sultan was captured • Timur died in 1405 with no successor and the threat ended

  5. Succession Issues • What was the problem with succession in previous Muslim empires? • Mehmed I defeated his brothers to become the next important sultan • Later sultans would kill all their male relatives upon coming to power in order to prevent rivalries

  6. MEHMED II (MEHMED THE CONQUEROR) • Ottomans had conquered lots of Byzantine territory, but not the declining city of Constantinople • Constantinople was located on the Bospherous and was an important city militarily and economically • Ottomans conquered the city April 1453 (cannons played a large role) • Mehmed II went to Hagia Sophia and changed it to a mosque • Mehmed II encouraged the reconstruction of Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul

  7. Selim the Grim • Came to power in 1512 by killing his father, brothers, nephews, and all but one son • Known for the Battle of Chaldiren 1514 when the Ottomans defeated their Shiite neighbors, the Safavids • Captured the holy cities of Medina and Mecca, as well as India

  8. SULIEMAN I (SULEYMAN) THE MAGNIFICENT • Ruled for 46 years beginning in 1520 • Impressive military leader who conquered new territory and expanded Ottoman control over the entire eastern Mediterranean • 1529- attempted to conquer Vienna, Austria but failed- ended Ottoman westward expansion

  9. SULIEMAN I (SULEYMAN) THE MAGNIFICENT • Simplified taxation system • Streamlined the bureaucracy- gave him the title of Lawgiver • Studied poetry, history, geography, astronomy, math, and architecture • Sinan- architect who designed Mosque of Suleiman in Istanbul • Enthusiastic patron of the arts

  10. Ottoman Government Structure • Highly efficient government structure Ottoman Sultan Imperial Council (including viziers) Many drawn from the devshrime Local administrators Military commanders Tax collectors Millets Muslim, Christian, and Jewish

  11. Ottoman Government Organization • Janisarries- Christian children taken through the devshirme system who were educated and converted to Islam • Trained as soldiers and had huge power of the military • Millet System- freedom of worship to other religions, especially people of the book • Each religious group or millet was headed by an administrator who reported to the sultan and collected taxes • Prevented lots of conflict between religions, but caused people to identify themselves first by religion and caused issues later

  12. Decline of Ottomans • Because of the succession issues and the practice of eliminating rivals (usually strangled to death), few effective successors existed- this led to a series of ineffective rulers • Sultans would keep one son alive in the harem, isolated from society • 1571- Battle of Lepanto- defeat of the Ottoman navy by Europeans • Ottomans did not readily adopt new military technology from the West- janissaries often prevented this to keep their positions

  13. The Beginning of the Safavids • Developed from a group of militant Sufis • Claimed they were descended from Muhammad and were Shiite Muslims • Shiites were persecuted by the Ottomans and the two groups were enemies • Built a powerful military to defend from Sunnis

  14. Safavids • Safavid military wore red hats so were called Red Heads • 1499- leader of the Red Heads was Isma’il • Seized most of Iran and took title of shah (king) • Shiite Islam was official religion • No toleration for other religions and infidels were killed • Defeated by Ottomans at Battle of Chaldiren in 1514- led to even more animosity between Sunnis and Shiites

  15. Shah Abbas (Abbas the Great) • Golden age of Safavids • Limited the power of the Red Heads and made the army more loyal to the shah • Modern artillery • Patron of the arts- grew artists from as far away as China to the Safavid empire • Built beautiful capital of Isfahan • Safavids were known for their artwork and craftsmanship, especially their carpets

  16. Decline of the Safavids • Shah Abbas eliminated his sons as many other Muslim rulers did, so the shahs after him were inept • 1722- Afghan tribes began invading, Ottomans attacking from the west • 1736- Sunni ruler seized power named Nadir Shah Afshar and created a new Persian empire • He was cruel, hated, and eventually murdered by his own army • 1747- he was killed and the empire ended

  17. Legacy of the Safavids • Persian culture survives till today • Shiism still survives and there is still intense hostility between Shias and Sunnis

  18. Deterioration of Imperial Leadership • Succession disputes lead to isolation • Ottoman princes become lazy through luxury • Attempts to isolate them compounds the problem

  19. Economic and Military Decline • Foreign trade controlled by Europeans • Military, administrative network expensive to maintain • Janissaries mutiny when paid with debased coinage, 1589, other revolts follow • Unproductive wars • European military technology advances faster than Ottomans can purchase it

  20. Cultural Conservatism • Europeans actively studying Islamic cultures for purposes of trade, missionary activities • Islamic empires less interested in outside world • Swiftly fell behind in technological development • E.g. Jews from Spain establish 1st printing press in Anatolia in late 15th century • But printing of books in Turkish and Arabic forbidden until 1729