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IPv6 . Stewart Tansley Program Manager Windows Core Networking Agenda. Trends – devices, apps, markets Today’s Internet Problems The Promise of IPv6 Deploying IPv6 Roadmap Specific Guidelines Call to Action. Trends – Computing devices.

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Stewart Tansley

Program Manager

Windows Core Networking

  • Trends – devices, apps, markets
  • Today’s Internet Problems
  • The Promise of IPv6
  • Deploying IPv6
  • Roadmap
  • Specific Guidelines
  • Call to Action
trends computing devices
Trends – Computing devices
  • Small form factor devices
    • PDAs, Smart Phones, Web Pads
  • Always On, Always connected
  • Enable new and interesting usage scenarios
trends applications


Trends - Applications
  • Peer-to-Peer enables compelling scenarios
    • Require end to end connectivity
    • Blocked by Network Address Translators (NATs)
  • Net attached Consumer Electronics and Gaming appliances emerging
  • Applications assuming always on connectivity, anywhere
    • Voice, Video, Collaboration
regional trends highlights

Government incentives to move to IPv6

8 Billion Yen Subsidization already allocated

Time-limited IPv4 addresses expire in 2005, when 100% IPv6

1000x /48 sites at 4/02

NTT commercial deployment of IPv6

e-Japan Priority Policy Program:“Internet users 80M by 2005. Essential to promote IPv6 to private enterprise, government bodies, organizations and personal users.”


2150 attendees, 5/02 summit

~9M Global IPv4 Addresses(137 /16’s + 27 /24’s), 1.3B people


Lagging industrialized world, but has 74% of all IPv4 addresses

Lag won’t last much longer as new scenarios are enabled c.f. lag in cell phones


2/02: Euro Commission: “Europe must work harder to shift the Internet to run on IPv6 to make room for the flood of wireless devices”

“Current reserve of addresses is expected to run out in 2005”

Government sponsorship of pilot deployments

Wants to be leading internet economic region by 2010

Skanova– IPv6 ISP


~28M Internet users, 60% population

~8M are broadband, 28%

OECD: highest penetration

Government incentives to move to IPv6

22% APNIC IPv6 pTLAs

Regional Trends (highlights)
key problems
Key Problems
  • Address Shortage
    • Not enough IPv4 addresses available
    • Disproportionate allocation
    • Increasing number of devices and Always On experience exacerbate the problem
  • Lack of Mobility
    • Applications and network protocols break in mobile scenarios
  • Network Security
    • Always On == Always attacked!
key problems address shortage
Key ProblemsAddress Shortage

Extrapolating the number of DNS registered addresses shows total exhaustion in 2009. But the practical maximum is about 200 M addresses, in 2002-2003.

key problems address shortage8
Key ProblemsAddress Shortage
  • Peer to Peer applications require:
    • Addressability of each end point
    • Unconstrained inbound and outbound traffic
    • Direct communication between end points using multiple concurrent protocols
  • NATs are a band-aid to address shortage
    • Block inbound traffic on listening ports
    • Constrain traffic to “understood” protocols
    • Create huge barrier to deployment of P2P applications
key problems lack of mobility
Key ProblemsLack of Mobility
  • Existing applications and networking protocols do not work with changing IP addresses
    • Applications do not “reconnect” when a new IP address appears
    • TCP drops session when IP address changes
    • IPSec hashes across IP addresses, changing address breaks the Security Association
  • Mobile IPv4 solution is not deployable
    • Reliance on “Foreign Agent” is not realistic
    • NATs and Mobile IPv4? Just say NO
key problems network security
Key ProblemsNetwork Security
  • Always On == Always attacked!
    • Consumers deploying NATs and Personal Firewalls
    • Enterprises deploying Network Firewalls
  • NATs and Network Firewalls break end-to-end semantics
    • Barrier to deploying Peer to Peer applications
    • Barrier to deploying new protocols
    • Block end-to-end, authorized, tamper-proof, private communication
  • No mechanisms for privacy at the network layer
    • IP addresses expose information about the user
  • No transparent way to restrict communication within network boundaries
the promise of ipv6
The Promise of IPv6
  • Enough addresses
    • 128 bits, 64+64 format = 1.8E+19 networks, units
    • Assuming IPv4 efficiency: 1E+16 networks, or 1 million networks per human
    • 20 networks per m2 of Earth (2 per ft2 )
    • Removes need to stretch addresses with NATs
  • True mobility
    • No reliance on Foreign Agents
  • Better network layer security
    • IPSec delivers end-to-end security
    • Link/Site Local addresses allow partitioning
    • Anonymous addresses provide privacy
ipv6 key advantages
IPv6 – Key advantages
  • Global addressing:
    • Scaling well beyond 4 trillion public endpoints
    • Stateless address auto-configuration
  • Plug and play:
    • Simple instant-on ad-hoc networking
  • Efficient mobility:
    • Mobile IPv6, unlike IPv4, does not need the Foreign Agent
  • Secure
    • IPSec is a requirement and integral part of the IP layer
    • Anonymous addresses ensure privacy
ipv6 basics
IPv6 basics
  • Address size: 128 bit
    • Cf. 32 bit IPv4 – IPv6 has 1038 addresses!
  • Examples
    • Look unfriendly, but autoconfigured!
    • fe80::54ff:fe55:4e01%4 (link-local)
    • fec0::1:2c0:4fff:fe27:e421 (site-local)
    • 2002:ac1f:4798::ac1f:4798 (global)
  • Convenient address scopes
    • Link local: always present, instant-on
    • Site local: private site addressing
    • Global: true Internet addresses
ipv6 migration
IPv6 Migration
  • End to End Connectivity:
    • 6to4: Automatic tunneling of IPv6 over IPv4
      • Derives IPv6 /48 network prefix from IPv4 global address
    • Teredo: Automatic tunneling of IPv6 over UDP/IPv4
      • Works through NAT, may be blocked by firewalls
    • ISATAP: Automatic tunneling of IPv6 over IPv4
      • For connecting IPv6 islands to IPv4 network in the enterprise
      • Enables gradual migration to IPv6
  • Applications:
    • Native sockets based applications need change
      • Checkv4 tool helps identify changes
    • Applications using high level programming paradigms are already IPv6 ready
      • E.g. RPC, DPlay etc.
    • .NET Framework is IPv6-ready
home enabling ipv6 i
Home – Enabling IPv6 – I
  • 6to4 (new NATs)

IPv6 Internet


Site 1

6to4relay router

IPv6 host A

IPv6 host D

IPv4 Internet

6to4 router

IPv6 host B


Site 2

6to4 host C

home enabling ipv6 ii
Home – Enabling IPv6 – II
  • Teredo (legacy NATs)



Teredo server

Teredo relay

IPv6 host D

ISP’s IPv4-only NAT

Home B

Home A

Home IPv4-only NAT

Teredo client

Teredo client + bridge

Teredo client

IPv6-only device

enterprise enabling ipv6
Enterprise – Enabling IPv6

6to4 relay



6to4 gateway router for site


ISATAP routerfor site

IPv6 subnets

IPv4 subnets


  • Use IPv6 ISP or 6to4 for connectivity to IPv6 internet
  • Use ISATAP while upgrading the network incrementally
what does it take to deploy ipv6
What does it take to deploy IPv6

Platform and Infrastructure


Application Development Tool Support

Network Infrastructure

what is microsoft doing
What is Microsoft Doing ?
  • Platform and Infrastructure
    • Windows XP SP1, Windows.NET Server full deployment quality IPv6
    • Windows CE.NET, Windows Embedded SP1 too
  • Application Development Tools
    • Support for native Winsock layer
    • RPC, Dplay, P2P SDK
    • .NET Framework and VS.NET
  • Applications
    • IE, IIS, File and Print, Media Server …
    • Working with 3rd party ISVs
  • Network Infrastructure
    • IPv6 islands connected to/across IPv4 internet (6to4, Teredo)
    • Gradual Migration in the enterprise (ISATAP)
    • Working with NEPs to make the migration easier
deploying ipv6 recommended strategies
Deploying IPv6Recommended Strategies
  • Dual-stack, IPv6-only
  • In the home
    • Use native IPv6 if available
    • Or use 6to4 if global IPv4 address
    • Or use IPv6 over UDP if private IPv4 address
  • In the enterprise
    • Use IPv6 ISP or 6to4 for external access
    • Use ISATAP while upgrading the network
ipv6 roadmap
IPv6 Roadmap

“IPv4 Ocean, IPv6 islands”

IPv6 in the home

Pilot deployments in Asia

Broadband ISPs in Asia

Enterprise deployments

Broadband ISPs in Asia/Europe

ISPs in North America ?


“IPv6 ocean, IPv4 islands”

IPv6 is everywhere

Hosts are still dual-stack for compatibility with older devices



Windows XP SP1

Windows.NET Server

Transparent connectivity via 6to4, Teredo, ISATAP

Windows CE.NET

Windows and MS application support IPv6 natively

Top tier 3rd party apps






ipv6 and internet gateway devices
IPv6 and Internet Gateway Devices
  • One subnet per household
  • Single gateway
  • Dual-stack connectivity
  • Network security boundary at the IGD
isp scenarios for an ipv6 igd
ISP scenarios for an IPv6 IGD
  • IPv4-only ISP
    • ISP provides global IPv4 address through automatic (e.g. DHCP) or manual configuration
    • IGD uses 6to4 technology to offer a single Home LAN subnet in the 2002::/16 range
  • IPv6 enabled ISP (may also offer IPv4)
    • ISP supports automatic IPv6 address assignment with Router Advertisements (RA)
    • IGD relays RA to the Home LAN and serves as site boundary (serves as RA proxy)
device scenarios for a home lan
Device scenarios for a Home LAN
  • IPv4-only device
    • Does not benefit from IPv6 service, uses NAT
  • IPv6/IPv4 device
    • May use either protocol, depends on destination
    • Most network settings assigned with DHCPv4
  • IPv6-only device
    • Cannot talk to IPv4-only destinations directly
    • Should implement mDNS and DDNS
features of an ipv6 igd
Features of an IPv6 IGD
  • IPv6 Router with 6to4 and RA proxy
    • 6to4 for IPv4 ISPs, RA proxy for IPv6 ISPs
  • DNS Proxy
    • Allows name resolution for IPv6-only nodes attached to the Home LAN
  • DNS name registration and enumeration
    • Allows name discovery and name resolution within the home LAN
features known to be harmful
Features known to be harmful
  • IPv6-to-IPv4 NAT-PT
  • DNS record A<->AAAA translation in the DNS proxy
  • Reverse DNS name lookup
  • IGD implementers considering these features are encouraged to contact Microsoft IPv6 team
call to action
Call to Action
  • IPv6 is here already!!
  • Enable applications to use IPv6 now!
    • Use IPv6 stack in Windows XP and programming tools in VS.NET and .NET Framework
    • Take advantage of IPv6 to enable new scenarios, enhanced user experience
  • Start deploying IPv6 now!
    • ISP: 6to4 relays, Teredo relays & servers
    • Enterprises: 6to4, ISATAP
  • NATs/Firewalls/Routers follow our guidelines
    • Do not block IPv6, Support 6to4
  • Handheld devices – Build around IPv6
    • Secure, Mobile, Small footprint

Join us to move the world to a simple ubiquitous network based on IPv6

more information on ipv6
More Information on IPv6
  • Microsoft IPv6 information portal:
  • Send feedback on Microsoft IPv6 implementations:
  • Specific Guidelines for IGD implementers:
      • “IPv6 Support in Internet Gateway Devices”
  • Key IETF standards
    • IPv6 specification (ipngwg)
      • RFC 2460, 2463. 2373 - IPv6 protocol & 2463.txt & 2373.txt,
    • IPv6 transition tools (ngtrans/v6ops)
      • RFC 3056 - Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds (6to4)
      • Internet Draft - Tunneling IPv6 over UDP through NATs (Teredo)
      • Internet Draft - Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)