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Highly sensitive NQR

Highly sensitive NQR

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Highly sensitive NQR

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    1. Highly sensitive NQR/NMR technique for explosive detection NPD: Prof. Dr. Bekir Aktas Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze- Kocaeli, Turkey PPD : Dr. Georgy Mozzhukhin Kazan State Power Engineering Univ., Kazan, Russian Fed. Co-Director : Prof. Dr. Kev Salikhov Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute, Kazan, Russian Fed.

    2. Current status of technology The methods of the explosives detection are following: Trace (biosensor, fluorescent, electro-chemical, mass spectrometry, ion mobility), X-ray (transmission, backscatter, computer tomography, dual energy) Neutron (thermal neutron analysis, fast neutron analysis, neutron backscatter and etc.) Other nuclear (gamma backscatter, transmission) Electromagnetic (nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, nuclear quadrupole resonance NQR)

    3. Current status of technology - 2 The advantages of NQR: The NQR frequency is a unique (very high reliability) RF radiation is not dangerous or destructive detection of hermetically-packed explosives Simple sensor (RF coil) The problems and disadvantages of NQR: Low sensitivity, especially to low frequency explosives (<1MHz) NQR method permits to detect only crystalline samples RF interference problems the electrical (metal) shielding does not permit to detect the explosives

    4. Current status of technology - 3

    5. Current status of technology - 4

    6. Current status of technology - 5 The methods to improve SNR in the NQR detection: advanced techniques of the coherent accumulation of the signals in multipulse sequences the double/triple frequency and double resonance (NQR-NMR or NQR-NQR) methods, the application of novel sensors: atomic and SQUIDs magnetometers, GMR sensors and High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) resonators.

    7. The objectives of the project Higher SNR of NQR signal by application of the original multi-pulse and multi-frequency sequences to obtain steady-state precession states in pure NQR Testing of various modifications of double resonance methods to increase SNR of direct NQR detection by change of relaxation parameters of the NQR system. Testing of High-Tc superconductor elements with use of pick-up coil probes and mixed sensors to increase sensitivity of NQR detection. Research and technical design of low-field NMR technique to detect liquid illegal substances or their precursor components. The models of the detection devices will be created as well

    8. The novelty of project Two-frequency irradiation of the sample combined with multi-pulse technique (to increase the sensitivity of NQR detection) The coherent steady states excited by one (two) frequency multiple pulse period after application of two or three frequency excitation. Application of multi-pulse multi-frequency sequences during direct contact between proton and quadrupole subsystem Development of the theory of cross-relaxation processes for the system under multifrequency irradiation Testing of novel technical solutions, such as high-Tc supercon-ductors and GMR sensors GMR sensors

    9. Deliverables

    10. Milestones

    11. The quantified criteria of success

    12. The institutes involved in project Gebze Institute of Technology (GIT) will execute the following tasks: NQR measurements to study various two- and three- frequency multi-pulse sequences as well double resonance techniques for the explosives detection; Design and testing of Giant Magnetoresistance/mixed sensors for NQR (based on a strong background of this group in nanomagnetism) study of relaxation processes and parameters of the NQR systems under the multi-frequency excitations; investigation of the influence of different factors (temperature, interference signals and etc.) on the results of the detection Studies of new signal processing techniques to increase reliability of the NQR detection Experiments for detection of liquid explosives using the low field NMR analyzer developed at GIT Reviewing of possible application of the studied methods and preparation of a general report reviewing the project results.

    13. The institutes involved in project - 2 Zavoisky Physical -Technical Institute (ZPhTI) will execute the following tasks: theoretical studies of two- or three frequency multi-pulse NQR to obtain steady states experimental testing of the multi-frequency and multi-pulse NQR on 14N nuclei exploration of the NMR scanning possibilities for the detection of illegal substances, contraband, and liquid explosives using the low field commercial MRI device developed in ZphTI design of the NMR/NQR equipment to detect of the different nitrogen compounds design and development of High-Tc elements to be implemented in the research techniques as well as in the commercial NQR-detection devices

    14. The institutes involved in project - 3 Kazan State Power Engineering University will execute the following tasks: investigation of the double NQR-NMR effects during two frequency excitation of 14N nuclei NQR measurements in the magnetic field and studies influence of the hetero-nuclear interaction on the two-frequency signal of 14N nuclei studies of the double NMR/NQR system applying a weak magnetic field and proton frequency excitation to increase parameter T2 of NQR signal studies of the cross-relaxation effects of the double NMR-NQR in the contact between the proton and NQR subsystems of the sample theoretical studies of the interacting NQR - NMR systems, e.g. relaxation processes and parameters of a NQR system in the contact with proton system under the multi-frequency and multi-pulse excitations

    15. The institutes involved in project - 3

    16. The institutes involved in project End user: EMC Elektronik will be responsible for the implementation of the project results, such as: development of the model NQR device for the explosive detection construction of the next generation of NMR/NQR devices to detect different nitrogen compounds in the luggage/post

    17. ZPhTI - low-field MRI device

    18. Ongoing scientific activities of the institutes involved in project G.V. Mozzhukhin, B.Z. Rameev, N. Dogan, B. Aktas. Secondary signals in two-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance on 14N nuclei with I = 1, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Volume 193, Issue 1, Pages 49-53, 2008. G.V. Mozzhukhin, B.Z. Rameev, B. Aktasc et al. The two-frequency multipulse sequence in nuclear quadrupole resonance of N-14 nuclei. In book of abstracts:EUROMAR 2008, St.Petersburg, Jule 2008, p. 48 G.S.Kupriyanova, G.V. Mozzhukhin, B.Z. Rameev. The cross relaxation in nuclear quadrupole resonance of N-14 nuclei in low field double resonance. In book of abstracts: EUROMAR 2008, St.Petersburg, Jule 2008, p.52. N.Dogan, G.V.Mozzhukhin, B.Z.Rameev et al. Two frequency studies on 14N nuclei. In : book of abstracts International conference on superconductivity and magnetism. ICSM-2008, August 25-29, Antalya, Turkey. G.V. Mozzhukhin, B.Z. Rameev, N. Dogan, B. Aktas, The two-frequency multipulse sequence in nuclear quadrupole resonance of N-14 nuclei, In: ed. Jacques Fraissard and Olga Lapina, Explosives Detection using Magnetic and Nuclear Resonance Techniques, Series: NATO Science for Peace and Security Series - B: Physics and Biophysics, in press. B.Z. Romeev & G.V. Mozzhukhin, Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance, In: ed. A.S. Turk, A.K. Hocaoglu, A.A. Vertiy, Subsurface sensing, Wiley-Interscience, to be published.

    19. Project Management

    20. Criteria for Success

    21. The contribution of the results of the project in stability, security and peace would be following: The cooperation in this project helps to strength the thrust and mutual respect the scientists of the NATO countries and Russia. The participation of young scientists permits to create the spirit of friendship and peace between new generation of scientists The development of the technology of the explosives and illegal substances detection on transport, in the luggage of the passengers and post, the improvement in the security of passengers The development of the technology of the landmine detection for humanitarian purposes after local conflicts

    22. Some references J.B.Miller, G.A.Barrall. American scientist,Vol. 93 (1), 2005, 50 R. Blinc, T. Apih, J. Seliger. Appl. Magn. Reson. 25, 523-534 (2004). D.Ya. Osokin. Phys. Stat. Sol. (b), 109 (1), K7-K10 (1982). G.V.Mozzhukhin. Applied Magnetic Resonance, 18, 4, 2000, p.527-535 D.J.Pusiol. Patent Application Publication.G01N 24/00, US 2005/0202570 A1, Sep.15, 2005 Kent R. Thurber, Karen L. Sauer, Michael L. Buess, Christopher A. Klug. J.Magn Reson 177, 118128 (2005). S.K.Lee, K.L.Sauer, S.J.Seltzer, O.Alem, M.V.Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,214108 (2006) The SQUID Handbook. Vol. II: Applications of SQUIDs and SQUID Systems. John Clarke and Alex I. Braginski (Eds.) 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim . J.D.King, A.De Los Santos. Development and evaluation of magnetic resonance technologies, particular NMR, for detection of explosives. Appl.Magn.Reson. 25, (2004) 535-565. M. Pannetier, C. Fermon,G. Le Goff, J. Simola, E. Kerr. Science 304 (2004) 1648