E-Waste Science & Technology Curriculum - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. E-Waste Science & Technology Curriculum What is WEEE?

  2. Lesson Objectives

  3. Lesson Outline • What is E-Waste • Where does it come from • Where does it go • How big is the problem • Hazards • Solutions

  4. Anything with a circuit board or a battery! What is E-Waste? • E-waste encompasses a broad and growing range of electronic devices • E-waste has become a problem of crisis proportions because of two primary characteristics: • E-Waste is generated in great quantities • E-Waste can be hazardous Exporting Harm: The High-Tech Trashing of Asia Feb 25, 2002by the Basal Action Network and the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition

  5. Pictures universal waste (ca)

  6. Where Does E-Waste Come From? E-Waste is generated by three major sectors in the U.S. • Individuals and small businesses • Large businesses, government, and institutions • Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) PCs are major contributors because they rapidly become obsolete Exporting Harm: The High-Tech Trashing of Asia Feb 25, 2002by the Basal Action Network and the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition

  7. Cadmium in batteries Plastics in cables Lead in solder joints

  8. PWB Anatomy

  9. How much E-Waste?

  10. How Much E-Waste Generated • 500 million U.S. computers 1997-2007 • 6.32 billion pounds plastics • 1.58 billion pounds lead • <13% reused or recycled • ~3 million tons to landfills/year (1997) • 130 million cell phones, batteries, chargers (65,000 tons/yr, 2005) • 6000 obsolete PCs/day in California • Potential $1 billion cleanup cost (over 5 years) • No estimates on CRT to HD, flat screen TVs

  11. pictures Photo courtesy of Recycling Council of Ontario

  12. pictures Photo courtesy of Recycling Council of Ontario

  13. E-Waste Hazards • Heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium) • Batteries containing cadmium • Cathode ray tubes with lead oxide & barium • Brominated flame-retardants on printed circuit boards, cables and plastic casing. • PVC-coated copper cables and plastic cases • Mercury in switches and flat screens • Poly Chlorinated Biphenyl’s (PCB’s) in older capacitors & transformers

  14. What Hazards Does e-Waste Present? • Several pounds of toxic heavy metals in most computer systems • Lead and cadmium in circuit boards and CRT monitors • Mercury in switches and LCD monitors • Cadmium in computer batteries • Toxic metals can leach into groundwater when landfilled or improperly disposed of

  15. What Hazards Does e-Waste Present? (cont.) • PCBs in older transformers and capacitors • Flame retardants on printed circuit boards, plastic casings, cables, and PVC cable insulation • Toxic dioxins and furans released by burning

  16. Hazardous Waste • Contains carcinogens… • Catches fire easily • Is reactive or unstable… • Corrodes metal containers http://www.learner.org/exhibits/garbage/hazardous.html

  17. Where Does E-Waste Go? • Storage • Landfill & Incineration • Reuse • Domestic Recycling • Prisons • Export to Developing Countries

  18. Where Does E-Waste Go? • Majority of waste electronics disposed in landfills • Heavy metals may eventually leach into groundwater • CRTs banned from landfills in CA and MA • 50 - 80% of waste electronics collected for recycling in the U.S. is exported overseas • Most electronics recyclers export some portion of their waste electronics overseas • Frequent destinations: developing countries

  19. Landfill Hazards • Leaking landfills • Leaching into soil and groundwater • Chemical reactions • Vaporization • Uncontrolled fires

  20. Incineration Hazards • Dioxin formation • Heavy metal contamination • Contaminated slag, fly ash, and flue gases

  21. Fate of Exported Waste Electronics • Only most valuable components reclaimed; other potentially recyclable materials discarded • Components often physically dismantled by hand • Some components (chips, connectors) processed in acid • Handlers often lack proper protective equipment • Leftover liquid dumped into water sources

  22. Fate of Exported Waste Electronics (cont.) • Open burning of wires and other electronics components • Wire insulation contains PVC or flame retardants • Non-recyclable materials dumped along waterways, in open fields, etc. • Plastic that is impure, has unmatchable color, etc. • Leaded CRT glass • Burned or acid-treated circuit boards

  23. Is Waste Hazardous (Ca)? • CA requires waste generators to determine • Generally, yes if • Toxic • Ignitable • Corrosive • Reactive • Special Procedures to determine determining LCD, plasma display hazards

  24. Classification of Hazards • Hazardous • Universal • Carcinogen • Toxic

  25. Hazards in E-Waste

  26. E-Waste Derivatives • Discuss the issue of excess packaging. Get the kids thinking about why they have to have the toy that comes in three boxes instead of the one with a price sticker on it. • Batteries

  27. Recycling Electronics • Obsolete electronics have low resale value • Most contain hazardous substances • And some valuable metals • Recycling saves resources and the environment

  28. Hazardous Waste Solutions • Waste Management: Minimize Impact • Waste Prevention: Minimize the Volume • Reduce waste and pollution • Reuse as many things as possible • Recycle and compost as much waste as possible • Chemically or biologically treat or incinerate • Bury what is left http://www.learner.org/exhibits/garbage/hazardous.html

  29. Integrated Waste Management • Source Reduction • Recycling • Waste combustion and landfilling U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Consumer Handbook for Reducing Solid Waste, www.epa.gov, 7-15-05

  30. Four Basic Principles • Reduce • Reuse • Recycle • Respond