Differentiated Instruction Lincoln, Maine June, 2006 Sandra Page ASCD Faculty Member and Educational Consultant 919/929-0681 firstname.lastname@example.org 350 Warren Court Chapel Hill, NC 27516
How we will spend our time together Day One • Define differentiation and its principles • Uncover some assessments for Learning Preferences of students • Examine lessons that adjust for learning preference • Choose to develop a learning style assessment or a learning profile lesson/activity Day Two • Understand readiness differentiation • Review pre-, ongoing, and other assessments that can be used to adjust instruction. • Analyze “tiered” lessons • Work individually or collaboratively on a lesson for your own classroom Day Three • Examine additional strategies • Clarify learning goals for your own lesson • Discuss management techniques and grading in a DI classroom • Continue to refine a lesson for your classroom
Directions:Complete the chart to show what you know about differentiation. Write as much as you can. Definition Key Vocab Differentiation Non-Examples Examples
Differentiation doesn’t suggest that a teacher can be all things to all individuals all the time. It does, however, mandate that a teacher create a reasonable range of approaches to learning much of the time, so that most students find learning a fit much of the time.
Student Traits There are four student traits that teachers must often address to ensure effective and efficient learning. Those are readiness, interest, learning profile, and affect.
Student Traits Learning profile refers to how students learn best. Those include learning style, intelligence preference, culture and gender. If classrooms can offer and support different modes of learning, it is likely that more students will learn effectively and efficiently. Tomlinson, 2003
Student Traits Interest refers to those topics or pursuits that evoke curiosity and passion in a learner. Thus, highly effective teachers attend both to developing interests and as yet undiscovered interests in their students. Tomlinson, 2003
Student Traits Affect has to do with how students feel about themselves, their work, and the classroom as a whole. Student affect is the gateway to helping each student become more fully engaged and successful in learning. Tomlinson, 2003
Student Traits Readiness refers to a student’s knowledge, understanding, and skill related to a particular sequence of learning. Only when a student works at a level of difficulty that is both challenging and attainable for that student does learning take place. Tomlinson, 2003
Differentiated Instruction is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs guided by general principles of differentiation, such as appropriate degree of challenge ongoing assessment and adjustment clear learning goals respectful tasks flexible grouping Teachers can differentiate Content Process Product Affect Readiness Interest Learning Profile Carol A Tomlinson
GROWTH If tasks are a close match for their skills MOTIVATION If tasks ignite curiosity or passion EFFICIENCY If the assignment encourages students to work in a preferred manner Readiness Interest Learning Profile
Learning Style Differentiation • How do I find out about students’ preferences? • How do I keep an accessible record of this in order to USE the information in instruction? • How do I group students in either think-alike or think-differently tasks? • What are some possible strategies? • Sternberg multiple intelligence lessons • Learning modality preferences in lessons • RAFTs (writing across the curriculum, differentiated by learning preference) • Anchoring “go to” activity • Learning contracts (differentiated by learning preference)
What Do You Want to Learn About Rome? Name: _______________________ These are some of the topics we will be studying in our unit on Ancient Rome. We want to know what you want to learn about. Number your choices from 1 to 8. Make sure that 1 is your favorite and 8 is your least favorite. ____ geography ____ government (laws) ____ agriculture (foods they grew) ____ architecture (buildings) ____ music and art ____ religion and ____ sports ____ roles of men, women, and children What Can You Tell Us About Rome? 1. What country is Rome in? ______________ 2. What does the word civilization mean?__________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________. 3. Can you give us some examples of different civilizations? ____________ ______________________________________________________. 4. Can you name any famous Roman people? ________________________ ______________________________________________________. 5. Many things in our country and culture came from the Romans. Can you think of any? ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________.
How Do You Like to Learn? 1. I study best when it is quiet. Yes No 2. I am able to ignore the noise of other people talking while I am working.Yes No 3. I like to work at a table or desk. Yes No 4. I like to work on the floor. Yes No 5. I work hard by myself. Yes No 6. I work hard for my parents or teacher. Yes No 7. I will work on an assignment until it is completed, no matter what. Yes No 8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my work and do not finish it. Yes No 9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to have exact steps on how to complete it. Yes No 10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to create my own steps on how to complete it. Yes No 11. I like to work by myself. Yes No 12. I like to work in pairs or in groups. Yes No 13. I like to have unlimited amount of time to work on an assignment. Yes No 14. I like to have a certain amount of time to work on an assignment. Yes No 15. I like to learn by moving and doing. Yes No 16. I like to learn while sitting at my desk. Yes No
Learning Profile Factors Learning Environment quiet/noise warm/cool still/mobile flexible/fixed “busy”/”spare” Group Orientation independent/self orientation group/peer orientation adult orientation combination Gender & Culture Intelligence Preference analytic practical creative verbal/linguistic logical/mathematical spatial/visual bodily/kinesthetic musical/rhythmic interpersonal intrapersonal naturalist existential Cognitive Style Creative/conforming Essence/facts Expressive/controlled Nonlinear/linear Inductive/deductive People-oriented/task or Object oriented Concrete/abstract Collaboration/competition Interpersonal/introspective Easily distracted/long Attention span Group achievement/personal achievement Oral/visual/kinesthetic Reflective/action-oriented
Intelligence Preference Human brains are “wired” differently in different individuals. Although all normally functioning people use all parts of their brains, each of us is “wired” to be better in some areas than in others (Gardner, Sternberg). Differentiation based on a student’s intelligence preference generally suggests allowing the student to work in a preferred mode and helping the student to develop that capacity further. Sometimes teachers also ask students to extend their preferred modes of working, or they opt to use a student’s preferred areas to support growth in less comfortable areas.
Sternberg’s Three Intelligences Creative Analytical Practical • We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger in one or two areas than in others. • We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences in students… • …but also recognize where students’ strengths lie and teach through those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new ideas.
Creative Thinker Attracted to novelty, likes to produce knowledge or ideas instead of consuming them, sees the world from a unique perspective, often prefers working alone, does not like to be rushed toward completion of tasks, often works in “bursts,” with long periods of incubation (which can look like unproductiveness) followed by quick, highly productive working periods, often has unique sense of humor. Needs: support with setting deadlines and timelines, open-ended assignments with structure, assignments that allow for creative thinking and novel products, support working with other students, frequent outlets for creative thought, support with turning “ideas” into “reality.”
Analytical Thinkers Likes to break things into its parts, likes to know how things work, enjoys facts as well as ideas, likes to argue, attracted to logical thinking and logical ideas, likes to “think” as opposed to “doing,” typically does well at school tasks, enjoys solving problems, can focus for long periods of time on a single task, may balk at “creative” assignments, likes to find one, right “answer,” may see things as black and white Needs: assignments that require thought as opposed to rote memorization, extended assignments that allow for focused, long-term study, “problems” to figure out, time to discuss ideas with others, support with how to present ideas in a non-argumentative way, support with listening to and accepting others’ ideas, opportunities to struggle with open-ended questions that have no right/wrong answer
Practical Thinkers Likes to see the real-world application of things, excellent at implementing plans, a “doer,” highly effective in making things “happen,” organized, less interested in ideas than in action, likes to move and do when learning, can be an excellent leader, may struggle with creativity-for-creativity’s-sake assignments, may resist completing assignments for which they see no real-world purpose, can work very well in group situations, may not be traditionally “book smart” Needs: Hands-on activities, assignments that are connected to the real world, opportunities to share ideas with practitioners and experts, experiences with more creative, open-ended activities, support with being patient with activities for which they see no immediate application, opportunities to lead (even when they are not the highest achievers, these students can be highly effective at leading groups and delegating responsibilities)
Biology – A Differentiated Lesson Using Sternberg’s Intelligences Learning Goals: Know - Names of cell parts, functions of cell parts Understand - A cell is a system with interrelated parts Do – Analyze the interrelationships of cell parts/functions Present understandings in a clear, useful, interesting and fresh way. After whole class study of a cell, students choose one of the following sense-making activities.
Sternberg Intelligence Preferences continuedAnalytical: Use a cause/effect chain or some other format you develop to show how each part of a cell affects other parts as well as the whole. Use labels, directional markers, and other symbols as appropriate to ensure that someone who is pretty clueless about how a cell works will be enlightened after they study your work.
Sternberg/Biology (cont’d) Practical: Look around you in your world or the broader world for systems that could serve as analogies for the cell. Select your best analogy (“best” most clearly matched, most explanatory or enlightening). Devise a way to make the analogy clear and visible to an audience of peers, ensuring that they will develop clearer and richer insights about how a cell works by sharing in your work. Be sure to emphasize both the individual functions of cell parts and the interrelationships among the parts.
Sternberg/Biology (cont’d) Creative: Use unlikely stuff to depict the structure and function of the cell, with emphasis on interrelationships among each of the parts. You should select your materials carefully to reveal something important about the cell, it’s parts, and their interrelationships. Your ahas should trigger ours. or Tell a story that helps us understand a cell as a system with interdependent actors or characters, a plot to carry out, a setting, and even a potential conflict. Use your own imagination and narrative preferences to help us gain insights into this remarkable system.
Sternberg/ Biology continuedProcess • Students share their work in a 3 format (2 times)– • first triads of students who completed the same option, • then triads with each of the 3 categories represented. • This is then followed by a teacher-led, whole class discussion of cells as systems, then a “Teacher Challenge” in which the teacher asks students to make analogies or other sorts of comparisons between cells, cell parts, or interrelationships and objects, photos, or examples produced by the teacher. • The teacher administers an end of chapter test that is the same for all.
Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences ANALYTICAL Linear – Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential Show the parts of _________ and how they work. Explain why _______ works the way it does. Diagram how __________ affects __________________. Identify the key parts of _____________________. Present a step-by-step approach to _________________. Streetsmart – Contextual – Focus on Use PRACTICAL Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work. Show how we could apply _____ to solve this real life problem ____. Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used. Here’s a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of ______________, develop a plan to address the problem. CREATIVE Innovator – Outside the Box – What If - Improver Find a new way to show _____________. Use unusual materials to explain ________________. Use humor to show ____________________. Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________. Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________. Become a ____ and use your “new” perspectives to help us think about ____________.
Evaluate the Sternberg lesson • Choose a lesson with a partner or two (Equation of lines, Plot, States of matter, Animal migration, Energy, Landforms, Dance, ) • Read through the lesson • Talk about: • What is the benefit to students for this learning style lesson? • Are all students working with the learning goals? • How are all students likely to be more actively engaged? • What are your questions?
Understanding Number Make a number chart that shows all ways you can think of to show 5. Analytic Task Find as many things as you can at school and at home that have something to do with 5. Share what you find with us so we can see and understand what you did. Practical Task Creative Task Write and/or recite a riddle poem about 5 that helps us understand the number in many, unusual, and interesting ways.
Equations of Lines • Know: • Forms of the equations of lines: General, Standard, Point – Slope, Vertical and Horizontal • Understand: • All forms of equations of lines represent the same line. • Given an equation of a line in one form, any other form can be generated. • Do: • Find other forms of equations of lines given one form. • Find the strengths, weaknesses and applications of each form of equation.
Equations of Lines • Analytical Compare the various forms of equations of lines. You may make a flow chart, table or any other idea to present your findings to the class. Be sure ton consider advantages and disadvantages of each. • Practical: Decide how and when each form of the equation of a line is best used. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each form? What specifically should you look for in order to decide which form to use? Find a way to present your conclusions to the class. • Creative: Put each form of an equation of a line on trial. Prosecutors should try to convince the jury that the form is not needed, while the defense should defend its usefulness. Group members are the various equation forms and the prosecuting and defense attorneys. The rest of the class will be the jury, and the teacher will be the judge.
Multiplication 3 and 6! • Analytical • Draw arrays for multiplying by 3 and 6, and list the facts next to each array. Next, make a list of as many patterns as you can find from the multiplication facts. Make a poster to help the class remember the 3 and 6 multiplication facts. • Practical • You and 5 of your friends go to the zoo. You all pay the admission of $3.00 each. You each buy a box lunch and each lunch costs $5.00. Three of your friends decide to buy a stuffed animal at the gift shop. The stuffed animals each cost $7.00. • How much money was spent on admission in total? • How much money was spent on lunch in total? • How much money was spent on stuffed animals in total? • How much money was spent in total? • Show how you know each of your answers is correct by explaining or drawing how you found each answer.
Multiplication 3 and 6! • Creative • Choose one of these writing prompts and complete the following RAFT OR: • Think of a way to remember the 3 and/or 6 multiplication facts. Make a poster, explain, act, or draw how to remember them.
Evaluating Plot Standard: Students will evaluate the quality of plot based on clear criteria • Analytical Task • Experts suggest that an effective plot is: believable, has events that follow a logical and energizing sequence, has compelling characters and has a convincing resolution. • Select a story that you believe does have an effective plot based on these three criteria as well as others you state. Provide specific support from the story for your positions. • OR • Select a story you believe has an effective plot in spite of the fact that it does not meet these criteria. Establish the criteria you believe made the story’s plot effective. Make a case, using specific illustrations from the story, that “your” criteria describes an effective plot
Evaluating Plotcont’d Evaluating Plot (cont’d) • Practical Task • A local TV station wants to air teen-produced digital videos based on well known works. Select and storyboard you choice for a video. Be sure your storyboards at least have a clear and believable plot structure, a logical sequence of events, compelling characters and a convincing resolution. Note other criteria on which you feel the plot’s effectiveness should also be judged. Make a case that your choice is a winner based on these and other criteria you state. • Creative Task • Propose an original story you fell has a clear and believable plot structure, a logical sequence of events, compelling characters, and a convincing resolution. You may write it, storyboard it, or make a flow chart of it. Find a way to demonstrate that your story achieves these criteria as well as any others you note as important.
Differentiation According to Sternberg’s Intelligences Tall Tales Grade 3 Know:What makes a Tall Tale Definition of fact and exaggeration Understand:An exaggeration starts with a fact and stretches it. People sometimes exaggerate to make their stories or deeds seem more wonderful or scarier. Do: Distinguish fact and exaggeration Analytical Task Listen to or read Johnny Appleseed and complete the organizer as you do. Practical Task Think of a time when you or someone you know was sort of like the Johnny Appleseed story and told a tall tale about something that happened. Write or draw both the factual or true version of the story and the tall tale version. Creative Task --- RAFT Assignment Role Audience Format Topic Someone Our Diary entry Let me tell you in our class class what happened while Johnny A.and I were on the way to school today…. Johnny Appleseed’s Facts Exaggerations
Draw a picture depicting the same scene throughout the 4 seasons. Make a song to Row, Row, Row Your Boat that tells what people do in each season and why. Study the pictures in the folder and try to identify the season in which each was taken. What clues did you look for? Explain why you guessed what you did. Make a shopping list for three people in your family that tells what they need to buy to get ready for each season. Be ready to tell why you put those things on your list. Cindy Strickland, 2004
Three States of Matter KNOW: Three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gasUNDERSTAND: All matter has both mass and volume.DO: Distinguish one state of matter from the others. Show how one state of matter changes to the others. Analytical Creative Practical
A Science Example: Migration • Know: animals’ traits and needs • Understand: that animals migrate in order to meet their needs. • Be able to: trace an animal’s migratory path and explain why it follows • that pattern • Analytical – Find two animals that share a similar migration pattern. Chart their similarities and differences. Be sure to include information on each animal’s characteristics, habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path, movement time frames, etc., as well as the reasoning behind these facts. Include an explanation as to why you think they share this pattern. • Practical – National Geographic has asked you to research the migratory habits of _________ (your choice). They would like you to share your findings with other scientists AND to offer them recommendations about the best manner of observing in the future. Be sure to include information on the animal’s characteristics, habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path, movement time frames, etc., as well as the reasoning behind these facts. Include a “How To” checklist for future scientists to use in their research pursuits of this animal. • Creative – You have just discovered a new species of ____________. You have been given the honor of naming this new creature and sharing the fruits of your investigation with the scientific world via a journal article or presentation. Be sure to include information on this newly-discovered animal’s characteristics, habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path, movement time frames, etc., as well as the reasoning behind these facts. Include a picture of the animal detailed enough that other scientists will be able to recognize it. Kristi Doubet 05
Energy: ANALYTICALDifferentiated by Intelligence Preference and also by Readiness
Energy: CREATIVEDifferentiated by Intelligence Preference and also by Readiness
Energy: PRACTICALDifferentiated by Intelligence Preference and also by Readiness
Learning Style Social Studies Lesson on Landforms based on Sternberg’s Intelligence Preference Know: Geographical terms (isthmus, delta, peninsula, river, island) Understand: Landforms and bodies of water effect human movement and influence the development of cities. Do: Locate and label specific landforms Analyze how landforms produce economic advantages that establish settlements. After students have read and taken notes on the chapter, the teacher reviews with the whole class the basic information on landforms. Then, students are given a choice of three assignments to be done individually or in groups of two or three.
Practical:Using these 8 given cities, (or you may choose other cities after approval by teacher), demonstrate how landforms and bodies of water contributed to the development and movement of people to this site over a period of time. You may use overlay transparencies or models to show the areas and growth. Creative:Develop a map of a new world that has at least 8 different types of landforms and/or bodies of water. Using labels, etc., determine how these sites would grow due to economic possibilities of these geographical features, and predict population growth over a period of time. Analytical: Create clues or a set of directions to help us identify and locate at least 8 landforms on the map (given in the textbook, or a map provided by the teacher). Clues/directions should also be based on population and economic growth and changes.
Dance Lesson Differentiation by Learning Profile (Sternberg Intelligence) Students will discuss their understanding of “Dance is communication” in a journal reflection. Analytical: Give specific examples of different ways dance can communicate. Discuss how space can be manipulated to create different moods. Present your conclusions in a chart or list. Practical: Choose 4 moods that can be communicated through dance. Discuss how dance would communicate each mood, and include the use of space for each. Creative: Dance is a form of communication. Create a story filled with emotion to communicate, and describe what the dance would look like. Be sure to include how the dance manipulates space. Nancy Smith, 2002
Use key facts from class and research Make a complete case Provide defensible evidence for the case Weight varied viewpoints Be appropriate/useful for its target audience Give evidence of revision & quality in content & presentation Be thought-provoking rather than predictable PRODUCT OPTIONSThe Good Life....Making Choices About Tobacco Use Visual Oral Comic book parody with smoking super/ heroes super/ heroines Story boards for t.v. “ad” using few/no words to make the point Radio-spot (public information with music timed, lead-in) T. Koppel C. Roberts with teen who smokes, tobacco farmer, tobacco CEO, person with emphysema Written Kinesthetic Brochure for pediatrician’s office – patients 9-16 as target audience – with graphics Research and write editorial that compares the relative costs and benefits of tobacco to N.C. – submit for publication Pantomine a struggle of “will” regarding smoking—including a decision with rationale Act out printed skit on pressures to smoke an reasons not to smoke
Social Studies Chapter Review:Differentiation by Learning Modality Students are asked to read a textbook chapter, using a graphic organizer for note-taking. They then prepare a review/response using learning modality preferences. They may work in ‘learning style alike’ partnerships to prepare the response. In class, they will debrief in groups of 4 with each modality represented in each group.
Differentiation by Learning Modality PreferenceSewing Project Choices in Consumer Education ClassStudents will all create a small, original product using skills of: sewing, design & layout, fabric selection, color choice, embellishment choices Sandra Page, 2006