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C++ for Java Programmers. Lecture 12. Yesterday. waaay back last lectuer we discussed: What is Inheritance? Base Class Access Control Protected Members Inheriting Multiple base classes Constructors & Destructors in Inheritance Different types of Access A word on Style.

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  • waaay back last lectuer we discussed:
    • What is Inheritance?
    • Base Class Access Control
    • Protected Members
    • Inheriting Multiple base classes
    • Constructors & Destructors in Inheritance
    • Different types of Access
    • A word on Style
one hour before i can go home
One Hour Before I can go home!
  • Until then I’ll be talking about:
    • Template Functions
    • Template Classes
    • The Standard Template Library
    • String Class
    • Documentation
    • Coursework2
standard template library
Standard Template Library
  • STL was one of the major aims during standardisation
  • It gives us many general purpose classes and functions
  • Implements popular algorithms and data structures
  • Because they are templates, the classes and functions can be used with any data type – huge flexibility.
  • Pretty contemporary feature.
  • Supported by all modern C++ compilers.
  • Can be used to create generic functions and classes:
    • take the type of data they are acting on as a parameter
    • We can have one function or class that works with several types of data
    • No need to recode specific versions for each data type
function templates
Function Templates
  • If functions are identical apart from the type of data they are acting on you should have a template.
  • A bubble-sort for example is identical whether you are using integers or floats.
  • So we could create a generic function that contains an algorithm but is independent of any data.
  • Essentially we are making functions that can overload themselves.
so how do i write one
So how do I write one?

template <class type> ret-type func-name(parameters)


//body of the code


  • The class type is just a placeholder
  • It can represent anything – an int, float, char, etc.
  • It can also represent a user defined type, a class, anything.

A placeholder for the type of data we will use

Function names and return types


Takes in a list of function parameters just like a normal function.

i still don t get it


first is now 7

second is now 5


first is now 7.77

second is now 5.55


first is now J

second is now G

I still don’t get it…

template <class X> void swap(X &a, X &b)


X temp;

temp = a;

a = b;

b = temp;


int main()


int first = 7;

int second = 5;

swap(first, second);

cout << “first is now : “ << first << endl;

cout << “second is now : “ << second << endl;


float first = 5.55;

float second = 7.77;

char first = ‘J’;

char second = ‘G’;

bubble sorted for e s and whizz
Bubble-sorted for e’s and whizz

template <class X> void bubbleSort(X *elements, int size){

X temp;

for(int i=1; i<size; i++)

for(j=size-1; j>=i; j--)

if (elements[j-1] > elements[j]) {

temp = elements[j-1];

elements[j-1] = elements[j];

elements[j] = temp;



int main() {

int intArray = {7, 3, 9, 4, 12, 2};

double doubleArray = {4.5, 7.77, 5.55, 4.123};

bubbleSort(intArray, 6);

bubbleSort(doubleArray, 4);


added extras
Added Extras
  • We can use more than one class type when we setup a template:

template <class X, class Y> void show(X &a, Y &b)

  • We can overload templates just like we would any other function - The compiler will work out which template you are trying to use.
  • We can also send normal parameters – not just the types we specified at the start of the template declaration.
  • You can also create specialisations of templates that have slightly different code than your general version, for specific types.
class templates
Class Templates
  • Everything we’ve done for functions above we can also apply to class structures.
  • Hence using the template keyword we can create generic classes too.

template <class type> class className


//header for the class


  • To create a specific instance of this class use the form:

className <type> objectName;

templates confusing code
Templates = Confusing Code
  • We also have to mention that we are in a class template when we are writing the methods for that class.
  • Be careful because this can make your code start to look really confused:
  • Method Syntax:

template <class type>ret-Type className::func-name(parameters);


//body of the function


same as a normal Member function

example template class
Example Template Class

template <class X, class Y> class myClass

X first;

Y second;


myClass(X a, Y b) { first = a; second = b; }

void show();


template <class X, class Y> void myClass::show()


cout << “The first value is : “ << first << endl;

cout << “The second value is : “ << second << endl;


example template class14
Example Template Class

int main() {

myClass<int, double> object1(10, 0.23);

myClass<char, char*> object2(‘J’, “Goulding”);


cout << endl;




The first value is 10

The second value is 0.23

The first value is J

The second value is Goulding

the power of templates
The Power of Templates
  • The template<> construct can be incredibly useful.
  • You can create frameworks that you can apply and reapply to a whole range of programming situations.
  • Once debugged they are a reliable, solid software component. You can re-use them and they’re guaranteed to work.
back to the stl
Back to the STL
  • All this template syntax can seem quite intimidating.
  • However once you get used to them, templates are relatively simple.
  • They are employed in the Standard Template library to offer you off-the-shelf solutions to a variety of programming problems.
  • Hence the whole point of them is to try and make your life easier 
3 different section
3 Different Section
  • At the core of the STL are three conceptual items, that allow us to use such things as:
    • vectors
    • maps
    • lists
    • strings
  • These are the foundations of everything in the STL:




types of containers
Types of Containers
  • Containers are objects that hold other objects.
  • There are three types of container:
    • Sequence containers
    • Associative Containers
    • Adapted Containers
  • Sequence Containers – essentially linear lists :

vector class

list class

deque class

string class

essentially just a dynamic array

a linear linked list

a double ended queue

A character array – null terminated string

associative containers
Associative Containers
  • Associative Containers – allow efficient retrieval of values based on keys.
  • Examples:
  • Every container class defines its own functions that can be applied to itself. However there are also gneral algorithms…

map class

multiset class

provides access to values with unique keys – thus it sores a key/value pair.

optimise for fast associative lookup.

  • The STL library provides a collection of generic algorithms <algo.h> which can be applied to a variety of different data structures.
  • STL comes with more than 70 algorithms, ranging from very simple to the extremely complex.
  • Most STL algorithms operate on a sequence of elements, and the algorithms access data via the use of iterators.
  • An example is the algorithm forcount().

count(i.begin(), i.end(), 2, n);.

This counts the number of occurrences of element 2 in the vector, putting the result in n.

  • An iterator is a kind of generalised pointer that may be used to traverse the elements of a container class.
  • At any point in time an iterator is positioned at exactly one place in a collection, and will remain there until moved.
  • There are five main classes of iterators:
    • input
    • output
    • forward
    • bidirectional
    • random access

most powerful iterator – supported by vector and deque classes

using the stl
Using the STL
  • Internally, the way the STL works and interacts is very sophisticated.
  • ...but you don’t need to. You just the simple interface functions.
  • Just decide on the type of container is best suited to the situation, create it and then use its functions.
  • We will be considering vectors, lists, maps and strings on this course.
  • Up to now we’ve been doing it the hard way.
  • We know C++ does not have built in support for strings.
  • However standard C++ can handle strings in 2 ways
  • The first we’ve looked at in detail – Null Terminated Strings (often called C-Strings) which are complicated but good for the soul.
  • But the STL also provides us with a string class too.
the string classes
The String Classes

This is a more generalised template class from which string is derived.




This is the primary class utilised. It supports 8-bit char strings.

similar class but wstring supports wide-character strings.

are these classes necessary
Are these Classes Necessary?
  • We’ve all become masters of the null-terminated string! Why do we need a string class?
  • The reason is to do with what we’ve considered in the last few lectures – operator overloading.
  • The basic operators such as =,+,- and so on cannot be overloaded to be able to handle null-terminated strings. For example, consider the following code:

char str1[50], str2[50], str3[50]

str1 = “Gordon”; //can’t do str2 = “the Gopher”; //can’t do

str1 = str1 + str2; //error

reasons for strings
Reasons for Strings
  • Having to use strcpy and not being able to use operators can make even rudimentary string operation clumsy.
  • So a String class was grudgingly implemented into the STL.
  • This allows strings to be used as fully integrated types, with overloaded operators and simple methods.
  • However Strings also add a safety net to your coding.
part of the stl
Part of the STL
  • As we discussed before STL has containers, algorithms and iterators.
  • the String class is a container. To include the string classes just include the <string> library at the top of your code.
  • 3 constructors:


string(const char *str);

string(const string &str);

Note that the string class is all in lowercase

Takes in a null-terminated string

Takes in another string object as a parameter

all lowercase

now we can use
Now we can use:

= Assignment

+ Concatenation

+= Concatenation Assignment

== Equality

!= Inequality

< Less than

<= Less than or equal

> Greater than

>= Greater than or equal

[ ] Subscripting

<< Output

>> Input

Now we don’t need functions such as strcpy() and strcat()

Just overloading the [ ] operators so they can be used as indexing.

inside the template library
Inside the Template Library
  • Remember the trouble we noted with overloaded methods – the object from the class had to come first.
  • We would potentially have the same problem here.
  • It is solved in the same way - <string> contains non-member functions to overload the operators that are then set as friends in the class.
  • This means we can have: string + string

string + C-string

C-string + string

scooby doo example
Scooby-Doo Example

3 Different ways of setting up an object of the string class

string str1 = “Shaggy”;

string str2(“Doo”);

string str3(str2);

str2 = “Scooby” + str3;

str3 = “Scrappy” + str3;

cout << str1 << “ says... *it wasn’t me…* ”;

if (str3<str2) cout << str3 << “comes before “ << str2;

else cout << str2 << “comes before “ << str3;

cout << “Type in your name:”;

cin >> str1;

cout << str1 << “ would have got away with it ”

<< “if it wasn’t for you pesky kids”;




how long is a string
How long is a string?
  • The most important point of this however is that at no point do you define how long your string will be.
  • string objects automatically size and re-size themselves.
  • Hence it is not possible to overrun the end of as string like you can with null terminated strings.
  • Immediately alarm bells should be ringing and “DMA” appearing in neon lights in your head.
  • DMA is being used - its just hidden, like in Java.
strings are containers
Strings are Containers
  • The string class is a container, and so it supports all of the common container functions.
  • They also support all of the STL’siterator and algorithm functions.
  • The most commonly used function is the .size() method:

for (i=0; i<str.size(); i++)

cout << str[i];

cout << endl;

dedicated methods
Dedicated Methods
  • String is a class, and so naturally, as well as all these overloaded operators, it has all sorts of methods too.
  • Many duplicate what the operators do, but with added functionality.
  • For example the assign method and = do almost identical things. However the method version can assign just a section of a string. E.G.:

string str1 = “Hello World”;

string str2;

str2.assign(str1, 6, 5);



  • Another capability provided by the class string is substr, which returns the substring of a string.
  • The substring is specified as a starting position and a length as arguments to substr.

string date = “March 7, 1994”; string year = date.substr(9, 4);

cout << “Year is “ << Year << endl;

  • If you go over the strings limits these values are just set to the max possible.
  • Of course we would use + to concatenate a string.
  • However this is just a specific use of the more general append method:

string &append(const string &str, start, num);

  • The start and num parameters indicate what parts of str should be appended. For example:

string str1(“Scooby DOO”);

string str2(“Scrappy”);

str2.append(str1, 7, 3);

cout << str2;


Scrappy DOO

  • Insert:

string &insert(position, str, start, num);

  • The start and num parameters indicate what parts of str should be taken, to insert at place position in the string.

string str1(“Scooby DOO”);

string str2(“Scrappy”);

str2.insert(2, str1, 7, 3);

cout << str2;



replacing erasing
Replacing & Erasing
  • The replace method is identical to insert except it overwrites the characters that were already there.

string str1(“Scooby DOO”);

string str2(“Scrappy”);

str2.insert(2, str1, 7, 3);

cout << str2;

  • Erase() is the method you would use to remove characters from your string.



  • To compare the entire contents of a string lexigraphically, we would use the > operator that we looked at earlier.
  • However, as with most of these methods, compare is useful if we only want to look at portions of these strings:

int compare(start, num, str);

  • So the first num characters from position start in str, will be compared with the invoking string project.
  • The string class also provides the ability to find a substring within a string – the find() method.
  • Find accepts two arguments - the search string and the starting position for the search

string scooby = “Wilma’s lost her glasses…again”;

int i = scooby.find(“her”, 0);

cout << “i is “ << i << endl;

  • The member function returns an integer of the position of the first match. rfind() does the same job but works backwards.

start point

getting at the c string
Getting at the C-String…
  • string objects can be incredibly but what if you’re a purist and want a null-terminated string. (E.g. when opening a file).
  • Its easy to do. Just use….

const char *c_str() const;

  • This returns a point to the null terminated character array within the string object. Take care with it because it can easily change:
  • Eg: fstream fin( fileName.c_str() );
  • Essentially your documentation should cover standard software readme's, covering: * HEADING * PLATFORM * WHAT THE CODE WAS WRITTEN IN * PROGRAM FUNCTIONALITY * ANY KNOWN WEAKNESSES (very important) * POSSIBLE FUTURE FUNCTIONALITY A Final section should also be included: * HOW YOUR PROGRAM IS STRUCTURED
coursework 2
Coursework 2
  • Will be online soon - the deadline for it however is ages off – 5pm Friday 17th May
  • It will require:
    • More OO than you can shake a stick at
    • Inheritance
    • Operator Overloading
    • DMA
    • File I/O
    • You WILL be good at C++ after this course
exercise of the day
Exercise of the day
  • Write a program that reads a text from standard input and prints a list of words of length less than 4 and their frequency in the text.
  • Suppose words consist of letters a-zA-Z only.