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Therapy Approaches. Biological Treatment Surgery & Electroshock Psychotherapy The Power of Forgiveness. Biological Treatments Drugs. 1-Antipshchotic Drugs 2-Antidepressant Drugs 3-Tranquilizers 4-Lithium Carbonate. 1-Antipsychotic Drugs or Neuroleptics.

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Therapy Approaches

  • Biological Treatment

  • Surgery & Electroshock

  • Psychotherapy

  • The Power of Forgiveness

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Biological TreatmentsDrugs

  • 1-Antipshchotic Drugs

  • 2-Antidepressant Drugs

  • 3-Tranquilizers

  • 4-Lithium Carbonate

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1-Antipsychotic Drugsor Neuroleptics

Good for treating psychosis and schizophrenia

Examople: Thorazine

Reduce receptivity to dopamine or increase serotonin

Reduce positive symptoms of schizophrenia

Do not relieve other negative symptoms

Can have dangerous side effect: tardive dyskinesia & neurolyptic malignant syndrome

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Good for reducing:




Can shorten schizophrenic episodes

Offers little relief from:

Jumbled thoughts

Difficulty concentrating

Inability to interact with others

Antipsychotic Drugsand Schizophrenia

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2-Antidepressant Drugs

  • Treat depression, anxiety, phobias, OCD

  • Example: Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil

  • Non addictive but can cause side effects

  • 1-Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (elevate levels of ser. & nor. by blocking inhibitors)

  • 2-Tricyclic antidepressants (boost nor. & ser. by preventing their reabsorption)

  • 3-Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    (work on serotonin)

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  • Prescribed for depressed mood, panic, and anxiety

  • Example: Valium

  • Increase activity of neurotransmitter GABA

  • If overused can result in tolerance and withdrawal

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4-Lithium Carbonate

  • Prescribed for bipolar disorder

  • Can be dangerous if not given in the right doze

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Cautions about Drugs

  • Placebo effect

  • Relapse and drop out rates

  • Dosage problems

  • Long-term risks

  • Overprescription

  • Sometimes they have to be with therapy

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The Placebo EffectKirsch and Sapirstein (1998)

  • 7315 participants

  • 41% of those receiving antidepressants experienced reduced symptoms.

  • 31% of those given placebos also received reduced symptoms.

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Surgery & Electroshock

  • Psychosurgery

  • Shock Therapy

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  • Psychodynamic

  • Behavioral

  • Cognitive

  • Humanistic/Existential

  • Therapy in Social Context

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Psychodynamic Therapy

  • Probes the past

  • Doesn’t tackle the immediate problem

  • The goal is insight

  • Takes a long time

  • Explores the unconscious

  • Methods: free association, interpretation of dreams, & transference

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  • Interpretation

    The analyst noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight.

  • Resistance

    In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.

  • Transference

    The patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)

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Behavioral Techniques



Association between

Environmental Stimuli + Response

Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning

Association Reinforcement/

Stimulus-Response Punishment

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Behavioral Techniques

  • There are no mental processes (will, mind)

  • Derived from classical and operant conditioning

  • The focus is on changing the behavior

  • Works on the immediate problem

  • Focuses on the present

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Classical Conditioning

  • Ivan Pavlov

  • Conditioning

    Learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organism’s responses

  • Stimulus-response Learning

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Classical Conditioning in Real Life

  • Learning to like

  • Learning to fear

  • Accounting for Taste

  • Reacting to Medical Treatment

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Operant Conditioning

  • The behavior is more likely or less likely to occur based on its consequences.

  • B. F. Skinner modified Pavlov’s concept.

  • Skinner used reinforcement and punishment to enhance learning.

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Behavioral Techniques

  • Systematic Desensitization/Counter Conditioning

  • Aversive Conditioning

  • Exposure Treatment (Flooding)

  • Behavioral Records & Contracts

  • Skills Training

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Systematic Desensitization

  • Fear of Flying

    • Read about safety

    • Look at pictures of airplanes

    • Visit an airport

    • Take a short flight

    • Take a long flight

  • Fear is extinguished

  • Counterconditioning

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Cognitive Therapy

  • Albert Ellis

    (Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy)

  • Aaron Beck

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Cognitive Distortions

  • Labeling

  • Mind Reading

  • Exaggeration

  • Unrealistic Expectations

  • Belief in Entitlement

  • Belief in Absolute Fairness

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Hot Thoughts

He is always mean to me.

I did a lousy job.

I deserve better.

It’s not fair.

That jerk!

They’re driving me crazy.

Cool Thoughts

Maybe he had a bad day.

It’ll be better next time

But people are people

Life is not fair.

It’s his problem!

Just don’t accept the ride.

Fighting Dysfunctional Thought

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  • Works on self-fulfillment and self-actualization

  • Does not delve into the past

  • Helps the client think about the present and the future

  • Helps people feel good about themselves

  • Tackles conscious rather than unconscious thoughts

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Carl RogersClient-Centered TherapyPerson-Centered Therapy

  • The therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients’ growth.

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Carl RogersClient-Centered Therapy

  • Offers unconditional positive regard

  • No specific techniques

  • Therapist should be warm, genuine and empathetic

  • Client adopts these views and becomes self-accepting

  • Promotes growth instead of curing illness.

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Active Listening

  • Paraphrase.

    Summarize the speakers words in your own words.

  • Invite Clarification.

    Encourage the speaker to say more.

  • Reflect Feelings.

    Reflect what you’re sensing from the speakers words and body language.

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Existential Therapy

  • Helps client explore meaning of existence

  • Helps client choose a destiny

  • Helps client accept self-responsibility.

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Therapy in Social Context

  • Family Therapy

  • Family Kaleidoscope

  • Family Systems

  • Group Therapy

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Communication ApproachVirginia Satir

  • Offered description of conjoint family therapy

  • Emphasized growth enhancing techniques to evoke feeling and clarify family communications patterns

    • (dance, massage, sensory awareness, group encounter techniques)

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Contextual Family TherapyIvan Boszormenyi-Nagy

  • Effective family therapy must attend to family context especially to those dynamic and ethical connections – past, present, future – that bind families together

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The Structural ApproachSalvador Minuchin

  • The individual’s symptoms are best understood as rooted in the context of family transaction patterns.

    • The family’s hierarchical organization

    • The wholeness of the family system

    • The interdependent functioning of its subsystems

  • Enmeshment

    The family boundaries are too diffuse to allow for individual autonomy

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Strategic ApproachJay Haley

  • The therapist devices a strategy for solving the client’s present problems

  • Goals are clearly set

  • Therapy is carefully planned to achieve these goals

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Object Relations

  • Introjects – the psychological representations of external objects

  • The most powerful obstacle to change is people’s attachment to their parental introjects

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Family Systems TheoryMultigenrationalMurray Bowen

  • Conceptualizes the family as an emotional unit, a network of interlocking relationships, best understood when analyzed within a multi generational or historic framework

  • Genograms

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When Therapy Helps

  • When clients have enough sense of self

  • When clients have enough distress to motivate them to change

  • When therapists are warm and empathetic

  • When client and therapist establish a good rapport

  • Hostile, negative clients are less likely to benefit

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When Therapy Harms

  • Bias on the therapist’s part because of gender, religion, or race

  • Coercion by the therapist to accept his/her advice

  • Coercion by the therapist to have sexual intimacy

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Alternatives to Psychotherapy

  • Community Psychologists

    • Half-way houses

    • Clubhouse model

    • Foster care

    • Family support groups

  • Rehabilitation Psychologists

    • Epilepsy, physical injury, arthiritis, chronic pain

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The Power of Forgiveness

  • Giving up grudges can reduce chronic back pain

  • Forgiveness limited the number of relapses among women battling substance abuse problems.

  • Using MRI scans to explore how just thinking about empathy and reconciliation sparks activity in the brains left middle gyrus, suggesting we all have a mental forgiveness center set to be tapped.

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The Power of Forgiveness

  • Cortisol’s depressive effect on the immune system has been linked to serious disorders.

  • Forgiveness stops the cortisol and adrenaline from flowing.

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American Psychosomatic SocietyA Study

  • 36 male veterans who had coronary artery disease and who were also burdened by other war-related issues

  • Those who received forgiveness training showed greater blood flow to the heart.