Standard Addressed: 11.9 Students analyze U.S. Foreign policy since World War II. CH 22-SEC-1 Lesson Objectives: CHAPTER 22: Section 1 - Moving Toward Conflict • 1. Summarize Vietnam’s history as a French colony and its struggle for independence. • 2. Examine how the United States became involved in the Vietnam conflict. • 3. Describe the expansion of U.S. military involvement under President Johnson.
QUIZ! Fill in your ID NUMBER! First & Last Name CH-22-1
A BULLDOG ALWAYS Commitment Attitude CARES Respect Encouragement Safety
Section 1 Moving Toward Conflict The Vietnam War Years The United States becomes locked in a military stalemate in Southeast Asia. U.S. forces withdraw after a decade of heavy war casualties abroad and assassinations and antiwar demonstrations at home. To stop the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, the United States uses its military to support South Vietnam. NEXT
Moving Toward Conflict America Supports France in Vietnam French Rule in Vietnam • Late 1800s–WW II, France rules most of Indochina • Ho Chi Minh—leader of Vietnamese independence movement - helps create Indochinese Communist Party • 1940, Japanese take control of Vietnam • Vietminh—organization that aims to rid Vietnam of foreign rule • carried out thousands of assassinations of South Vietnamese government officials. • Sept. 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam an independent nation NEXT
Dec. 1945 France Returns!! September 1945 Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam independent!!!
1. What did the Vietminh declare as its main goal? Guided Reading: Vietnam’s Independence
Guided Reading: Guided Reading: 2. What did Ho chi Minh declare after Japan was forced out? Guided Reading: That Vietnam was an independent nation
Guided Reading: Guided Reading: 3. How did Ho Chi Minh respond to the return of the French? Guided Reading: Vowed to fight from North Vietnam to liberate the South.
MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • A – How and why did the United States support France’s Vietnam War efforts? • The US provided France with economic and military support. • The goals were to keep France as an ally and to keep communism from spreading.
Guided Reading: 4. Whom did the U.S. support? Guided Reading: France
America Supports France in Vietnam President Truman provides $15 million in military & financial aid By 1954 the U.S. is paying 80% of French war costs • No U.S. combat troops
Guided Reading: 5. What aid did the U.S. provide? Guided Reading: Economic aid (for military purposes)
The Vietminh Drive Out the French • Domino theory—countries can fall to communism like row of dominoes • 1954, Vietminh overrun French at Dien Bien Phu; France surrenders • Geneva Accords divide Vietnam at 17th parallel; Communists get north • Election to unify country called for in 1956 NEXT
The Domino Theory led countries to believe that if one fell the rest would fall too.
Guided Reading: 6. Why did the U.S. get involved in the struggle? Guided Reading: To prevent another Asian country from becoming Communist.
Guided Reading: 7. What did Eisenhower compare to a row of dominos? Guided Reading: Countries verging on communism
1954 French troops defeated at Dien Bien Phu Battle of Dien Bien Phu America Supports France in Vietnam
Guided Reading: 8. What did this Vietminh victory cause the French to do? Guided Reading: Surrendered; pulled out of Vietnam.
Geneva Accords (1954) peace settlement • Temporary division of Vietnam at the 17th parallel • Ho Chi Minh governs the North from Hanoi • Anti-communist regime governs the South from Saigon • France must withdraw its troops in S. Vietnam • 1956 democratic elections to unite country under one gov’t
Guided Reading: 9. How did the Geneva Accords change Vietnam? Guided Reading: Divided it along the 17th parallel.
The United States Steps In • Diem Cancels Elections • Ho has brutal, repressive regime but is popular for land distribution • S. Vietnam’s anti-Communist president Ngo Dinh Diem refuses election • U.S. promises military aid for stable, reform government in South • Diem corrupt, stifles opposition, restricts Buddhism • • Vietcong (Communist opposition group in South) kills officials • Ho sends arms to Vietcong along Ho Chi Minh Trail NEXT
HO Chi Minh (North Vietnam) • Communist • Redistributed land to the peasants • Brutal & repressive • Supported by the Soviet Union & China • Popular support in North Vietnam • Fought the French, Japanese and Americans for an independent Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem (South Vietnam) • Anti-communist • Devout catholic, restricted Buddhist practices • Corrupt & suppressed opposition • Cancelled the 1956 democratic elections • Supported by the U.S.
MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • B – Why did the United States support canceling elections? • Because it appeared that Ho Chi Minh would win the election and possibly unify Vietnam under communism
Guided Reading: 10. Who cancelled the Vietnamese elections? Why? Guided Reading: President Diem(S.V.), with U.S. support; b/c feared that ho Chi Minh (N.V) and the Communist would win.
Kennedy and Vietnam • Like Eisenhower, JFK backs Diem financially; sends military advisers • Diem’s popularity plummets from corruption, lack of land reform • 675 U.S. Army advisors sent by 1960. NEXT
Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem • Diem’s family holds all power • Wealth is hoarded by the elite • Buddhist majority persecuted • Torture, lack of political freedom prevail
Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem • Diem starts the policy • strategic hamlet program • Is designed to fight the growing popularity of the Vietcong • villagers resent being moved from ancestral homes
Repressive dictatorial rule by Diem Self-Emolation by a Buddhist Monk • Diem presses attacks on Buddhism; monks burn themselves in protest
MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • C – Why was the Diem regime unpopular? • Corruption, repressive tactics, and persecution of Buddhists.
Nguyen Van ThieuAssasinates/ replaces Ngo Dinh Diem • U.S.-supported military coup topples government; Diem assassinated • In order to obtain a more popular leader to unite the South Vietnamese against communism, President Kennedy agreed to allow the CIA to provide a group of South Vietnamese generals with $40,000 to carry out a coup to eliminate Ngo Dinh Diem. • With the promise that US forces would make no attempt to protect Diem, the Vietnamese generals assassinated him.
President Johnson Expands the Conflict • The South Grows More Unstable • Succession of military leaders rule S. Vietnam; country unstable NEXT
LBJ thinks U.S. can lose international prestige if communists win
President Johnson Expands the Conflict • Aug. 7 1964– Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gives President Johnson war like powers w/o a declaration of war.
The Tonkin Gulf Resolution • Alleged attack in Gulf of Tonkin; LBJ asks for power to repel enemy • 1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution gives him broad military powers
1965 - 8 Americans killed, LBJ orders sustained bombing of North • U.S. combat troops sent to S. Vietnam to battle Vietcong NEXT
V. President Johnson Expands the Conflict • March 1965– 1st American “combat” troops begin arriving in S. Vietnam • June 1965– 50,000 U.S. soldiers were battling the Vietcong • Dec. 1965– 180,000 American “combat” troops in Vietnam fighting the Vietcong • 61% of Americans favor U.S./Vietnam policy • Dec. 1967– U.S. troop levels in Vietnam climb to 500,000
MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS • D – How did the Tonkin Gulf Resolution lead to greater involvement in the Vietnam War? • It gave Johnson wide authority to widen the war.
Guided Reading: 11. What authority did the Tonkin Gulf Resolution grant to the U.S. president? Guided Reading: Broad military powers in Vietnam.
Feb. 1965– The 1st sustained U.S. bombing of Vietnam begins w/ Operation Rolling Thunder