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The Science Of Welding An integrated lesson Topics to be Discussed Introduction What is Arc Welding? Why is Welding Important? Why Learn to Weld? Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding Electricity Energy Transfers Changes of State Chemical Reactions Welding Safety

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the science of welding

The Science Of Welding

An integrated lesson

topics to be discussed
Topics to be Discussed
  • Introduction
    • What is Arc Welding?
    • Why is Welding Important?
    • Why Learn to Weld?
  • Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding
    • Electricity
    • Energy Transfers
    • Changes of State
    • Chemical Reactions
  • Welding Safety
  • Careers in Welding

www.istockphoto.com

introduction
Introduction
  • Arc welding is a process used to join two pieces of metal together.
    • How does it work?
      • A welder creates an electric arc that melts the metal and filler rod to create a pool of molten metal that hardens to fuse the two pieces of metal together.
introduction4
Introduction
  • Why is welding important?
    • Many of the things you use need to be welded.
      • Your parent’s car
      • Power line towers
      • Your school desk
      • Your bicycle

www.topspeed.com

dcist.com

assembly.state.ny.us

www.cunninghamcycles.com

introduction5
Introduction
  • Why Learn to Weld?
    • Welding can help build a successful career to earn money to buy the things you want.
    • Skilled Welders are in high demand.
    • Welding is challenging and high tech.

www.universalwelding.com

www.weldingschools.com

www.globalizedsourcing.com

basic electricity and the science of welding
Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding
  • Voltage – The electrical potential or pressure that causes current to flow
    • Measured in Volts
  • Current – The movement of charged particles in a specific direction
    • Measured in Amps
  • Polarity
    • DC- (Direct Current Electrode Negative)
    • DC+ (Direct Current Electrode Positive)
    • AC (Alternating Current)

DC+

DC -

AC

basic electricity and the science of welding7
Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding
  • The electricity flows from the power source, through the electrode and across the arc, through the base material to the work lead and back to the power source
  • Circuit – click on the link

to learn more.

Circuit Info.

basic electricity and the science of welding8
Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding
  • Use the following links to learn how electricity works in a circuit
    • Conductors, Insulators, and electron flow
    • Current and Voltage in a Circuit
    • Resistance
    • Ohms Law
basic electricity and the science of welding9
Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding
  • The electron flow you just learned about is what creates the arc in arc welding.
  • This is a form of electrical energy
    • How do we use that electrical energy to fuse metals together?
basic electricity and the science of welding10
Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding
  • The energy transfers that take place in welding

Electrical The arc created by the

electric current is

converted into heat

Thermal because of the resistance of electron flow. The heat melts

the metal to fuse it together.

basic electricity and the science of welding11
Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding
  • Here are some places to look to learn more about energy and energy transfers.
    • Forms of Energy
    • Energy Transformations
basic electricity and the science of welding12
Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding
  • Changes of State and Chemical Reactions
    • During the welding process the metal changes states or forms.
      • What are the states of matter?
        • Solid
        • Liquid
        • Gas
        • Plasma

Click here to learn more about the changes of state

basic electricity and the science of welding13
Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding
  • Changes of State and Chemical Reactions
    • So what changes of state occur during welding?
      • Initially the metal is a solid
      • When the arc starts the solid is converted into a liquid
      • Some of the liquid is converted into a gas vapor
      • When the arc stops the liquid cools to form a solid again – this is the newly formed weld joint

Solid Liquid Solid

(gas vapor)

basic electricity and the science of welding14
Basic Electricity and the Science of Welding
  • Changes of State and Chemical Reactions
    • Chemical Reactions
      • During the welding process certain chemical reactions take place.
        • Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen can react in the weld puddle and cause changes in the structure of the weld weakening the weld.

pt.chemicalstore.com

welding safety
Welding Safety
  • Because of the chemical reactions, energy transfers, and electricity involved in welding proper safety must be addressed
  • Welding can be safe when sufficient measures are taken to protect yourself and others from potential hazards
  • Students should read and understand the following before welding:
    • Warning Labels
    • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
  • Students should also be familiar with the following information
    • ‘Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes’ (ANSI Z49.1)
    • Lincoln Electric’s ‘Arc Welding Safety’ (E205)

http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp

welding safety16
Welding Safety
  • Understand and follow all warning labels found:
    • On welding equipment
    • With all consumable packaging
    • Within instruction manuals

www.jpbrandit.com

http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp

welding safety17
Welding Safety
  • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are:
    • Required by law and OSHA
    • Created by the manufacturer of a product per OSHA guidelines
    • Designed to inform users
    • Shipped with every box of consumable product
    • Available free online at:

www.lincolnelectric.com/products/msds/

http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp

welding safety18
Welding Safety
  • MSDS outlines a product’s:
      • Identity and composition
      • Potential hazards
      • Safe use
      • Handling information
      • Manufacturer contact information

http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp

welding safety19
Welding Safety
  • Protect yourself and others from potential hazards including:
    • Fumes and Gases
    • Electric Shock
    • Arc Rays
    • Fire and Explosion Hazards
    • Noise
    • Hot objects

http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp

welding safety20
Welding Safety
  • Fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health
  • Keep your head out of the fumes
  • Use enough ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, to keep fumes and gases from your breathing zone and the general area
  • See product labeling and MSDS for ventilation and respirator requirements

http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp

welding safety21
Welding Safety
  • Electric shock can kill
  • Do not touch live electrical parts
    • Primary Voltage –230, 460 volt input power
    • Secondary Voltage – 6 to 100 volts for welding
  • Insulate yourself from work and ground
  • Follow all warnings on welding equipment

http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp

welding safety22
Welding Safety
  • Welding sparks can cause fires and explosions
  • Sparks and spatter from the welding arc can spray up to 35 feet from your work
  • Flammable materials should be removed from the welding area or shielded from sparks and spatter
  • Have a fire extinguisher ready
  • Inspect area for fires 30 minutes after welding

http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp

welding safety23
Welding Safety

Welders must wear protective clothing for

    • Protection from sparks, spatter and UV radiation
    • Insulation from electric shock
  • Protective clothing includes …
    • Fire-proof clothing without rolled sleeves, cuffs or frays
    • Work boots
    • Welding gloves, jackets, bibs, and fire-proof pants
    • Welding cap, helmet and safety glasses
    • Ear protection – ear plugs and muffs

http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp

careers in welding
Careers in Welding
  • Education
    • Penn College of Technology
    • Penn College Welding Video
    • Welding Schools
  • Careers
    • American Welding Society
    • Career Guide
    • Welding Jobs

pro.corbis.com

www.sun-tech.org

careers in welding25
Careers in Welding
  • Here are some possible areas you can start a career in welding
    • Racing
    • Engineering
    • Farm
    • Auto Technician
    • Sculpting
    • Maintenance
    • Iron worker
    • Robotics
    • Production welder
    • Fabricator
    • And many more…
what to learn more
What to learn more?
  • Do you want to learn more about welding and how to weld? If so, go to the link below for more information on how to weld.
  • This is to be used if your school has access
  • http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcubrriculum.asp
resources
Resources
  • http://www.lincolnelectric.com/knowledge/training/weldcurriculum.asp
  • http://www.weldinginfocenter.org/sci_tech/index.html
  • http://www.pct.edu/degreesthatwork/welding.htm
  • http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_1/index.html
  • All photographs are cited next to photograph