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The Respiratory System. Basic functions of the respiratory system Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) – movement of air in and out of the lungs Inhalation (inspiration) draws gases into the lungs. Exhalation (expiration) forces gases out of the lungs.

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The respiratory system l.jpg
The Respiratory System

  • Basic functions of the respiratory system

    • Breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation) – movement of air in and out of the lungs

      • Inhalation (inspiration) draws gases into the lungs.

      • Exhalation (expiration) forces gases out of the lungs.

    • Gas Conditioning – as gases pass through the nasal cavity and paransal sinuses, inhaled air becomes turbulent. The gases in the air are

      • warmed to body temperature

      • humidified

      • cleaned of particulate matter

    • Gas Exchange - respiration

      • Supplies body with oxygen

      • Disposes of carbon dioxide

    • Produces Sounds

    • Protects respiratory surfaces

    • Site for olfactory sensation


Respiration l.jpg
Respiration

  • Respiration – four distinct processes must happen

    • Pulmonary ventilation – moving air into and out of the lungs

    • External respiration – gas exchange between the lungs and the blood

    • Transport – transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and tissues

    • Internal respiration – gas exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues


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Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System

  • Respiratory organs

    • Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses

    • Pharynx, larynx, and trachea

    • Bronchi and smaller branches

    • Lungs and alveoli



Respiratory system l.jpg
Respiratory System

  • Consists of

    • Respiratory muscles – diaphragm and other muscles that promote ventilation

    • Respiratory zone – site of external respiration – respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli.

    • Conducting zones

      • Provides rigid conduits for air to reach the sites of gas exchange

      • Includes nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea

      • Air passages undergo 23 orders of branching in the lungs


The nose l.jpg
The Nose

  • Provides an airway for respiration

  • Moistens and warms air

  • Filters inhaled air

  • Resonating chamber for speech

  • Houses olfactory receptors

  • Skin is thin – contains many sebaceous glands


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The Nasal Cavity

  • External nares – nostrils

  • Divided by – nasal septum

  • Vestibule - anterior opening

  • Continuous with nasopharynx

  • Two types of mucous membrane

    • Olfactory mucosa - Near roof of nasal cavity, houses olfactory (smell) receptors

    • Respiratory mucosa - Lines nasal cavity

      • Epithelium is pseudostratified ciliated columnar

      • Goblet cells within epithelium

      • Underlying layer of lamina propria has glands that contribute to the mucus layer and blood vessels that warm the air.

      • Cilia move contaminated mucus posteriorly



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Nasal Conchae

  • 3 paired bony projections along the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

  • Superior and middle nasal conchae - part of the ethmoid bone

  • Inferior nasal conchae - separate bone

  • Function - Particulate matter deflected to mucus-coated surfaces


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The Paranasal Sinuses

Figure 7.11a, b


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The Pharynx

  • Funnel-shaped passageway

  • Connects nasal cavity and mouth

  • Shared by the digestive and respiratory systems

  • Divided into three sections by location

    • Nasopharynx – superior portion,

    • Oropharynx – continuous with the oral cavity

    • Laryngopharynx – between the hyoid bone and the esophagus

  • Type of mucosal lining changes along its length


The nasopharynx l.jpg
The Nasopharynx

  • Superior to the point where food enters

  • Only an air passageway

  • Closed off during swallowing

  • Epithelium consists of ciliated pseudostratified epithelium that moves mucus


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The Oropharynx

  • Arch-like entranceway – fauces

    • Extends from soft palate to the epiglottis

  • Epithelium - stratified squamous epithelium

  • Two types of tonsils in the oropharynx

    • Palatine tonsils – in the lateral walls of the fauces

    • Lingual tonsils – covers the posterior surface of the tongue


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The Laryngopharynx

  • Passageway for both food and air

  • Epithelium - stratified squamous epithelium

  • Continuous with the esophagus and larynx


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The Larynx

  • Prevent food and drink from entering the trachea

  • Passageway for air

  • Produces Sound

  • It connects the pharynx to the trachea

  • Epithelium of the larynx

    • Stratified squamous – superior portion

    • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar – inferior portion


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Nine Cartilages of the Larynx

  • Thyroid cartilage - shield-shaped, forms laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple)

  • Three pairs of small cartilages

    • Arytenoid cartilages

    • Corniculate cartilages

    • Cuneiform cartilages

  • Epiglottis - tips inferiorly during swallowing


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The Larynx

  • Vocal ligaments of the larynx

    • Vocal folds (true vocal cords) - act in sound production

    • Vestibular folds (false vocal cords) - no role in sound production

  • Voice production

    • Length of the vocal folds changes with pitch

    • Loudness depends on the force of air across the vocal folds


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The Trachea

  • Descends into the mediastinum

  • C-shaped cartilage rings keep airway open

  • Carina - marks where trachea divides into two primary bronchi

  • Epithelium - pseudostratified ciliated columnar


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The Trachea

Figure 21.7a, b


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Bronchi in the Conducting Zone

  • Bronchial tree - extensively branching respiratory passageways

    • Primary bronchi (main bronchi)

      • Largest bronchi

      • Right main bronchi - wider and shorter than the left

    • Secondary (lobar) bronchi

      • Three on the right

      • Two on the left

    • Tertiary (segmental) bronchi - branch into each lung segment

    • Bronchioles - little bronchi, less than 1 mm in diameter

    • Terminal bronchioles - less than 0.5 mm in diameter


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Tissue Composition of Conducting Zone

  • Changes along pathway

  • Supportive connective tissues change

    • C-shaped rings – trachea, primary bronchi

    • Replaced by cartilage plates, secondary & tertiary bronchi

  • Epithelium changes

    • First, pseudostratified ciliated columnar – trachea

    • Replaced by simple columnar - bronchi

    • Then simple cuboidal epithelium - bronchioles and terminal bronchioles

  • Smooth muscle becomes important at the bronchioles - controlled by the ANS (bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation).


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Lobes and Surfaces of the lungs

  • Right lung has three lobes

  • Left lung has two lobes

  • Concavity on medial surface = cardiac notch

  • Bronchi enter the lungs at the hilus


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The Pleurae

  • A double-layered sac surrounding each lung

    • Parietal pleura

    • Visceral pleura

  • Pleural cavity - potential space between the visceral and parietal pleurae

  • Pleurae help divide the thoracic cavity

    • Central mediastinum

    • Two lateral pleural compartments


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Structures of the Respiratory Zone

  • Consists of air-exchanging structures

  • Respiratory bronchioles – branch from terminal bronchioles

    • Lead to alveolar ducts

      • Lead to alveolar sacs



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Features Of Alveoli

  • Alveoli cell types

    • Type I cells site of gas exchangeand

    • Type II cells - secrete surfactant

    • Macrophages

  • Surrounded by basal laminae and elastic fibers

  • Interconnect by way of alveolar pores

  • Internal surfaces - site for free movement of alveolar macrophages

Figure 21.10b