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Soil Amendments and Fertilizers. What is a soil amendment and what is a fertilizer? Soil amendment – is a material that primarily adds _________________ matter to the soil Organic matter important for soil organisms Does contain nutrients needed by plants

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soil amendments and fertilizers
Soil Amendments and Fertilizers
  • What is a soil amendment and what is a fertilizer?
    • Soil amendment – is a material that primarily adds _________________ matter to the soil
      • Organic matter important for soil organisms
      • Does contain nutrients needed by plants
    • Fertilizer – is a material that primarily adds _________________ to the soil
      • Some fertilizers may contain organic matter
      • May not have all the nutrients that plants need
soil amendments
Soil Amendments
  • The impact of soil amendments on the soil and vegetable plants is dependent on the amount of ____________ and nitrogen in the amendment
  • Carbon to nitrogen ratio
    • Normal carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in soils is about _____:_____
    • Adding organic matter alters this ratio
    • Problem
      • Materials with too ___________ a C:N ratio will tie up nitrogen making it unavailable for vegetable plants
      • Soil organism use the carbon as an energy source and the nitrogen for ________________
soil amendments3
Soil amendments
  • Examples
    • _______________
      • Is a living culture of organic matter similar to yogurt
      • Rule: anything that is entirely organic in origin can be composted
    • Peat ____________
    • Sawdust
      • C:N ratio of 450:1
    • Green manures
soil amendments green manures
Soil amendments – Green manures

Introduction

  • _____________ manures – are rapidly growing plants that are incorporated into the soil before planting the vegetables
  • Advantages
    • Can supply ____________ to the vegetable plant
      • Some green manures are legumes
    • _____________ loss of nutrients
    • Makes plant nutrients available to the vegetable crop
    • Improves the ___________
soil amendments5
Soil amendments
  • What is a legume?
soil amendments6
Soil amendments
  • What is a legume?
    • It is a plant that has nodules on their roots which contain ___________________ bacteria
    • The bacteria are able to convert nitrogen in the air into a form that plants can use
    • Were used as a ____________ source before synthetic fertilizers were widely available
soil amendments cover crops
Soil amendments - Cover crops
  • Cover crops – are plants that are rapidly growing and after they die they are left on the soil surface
  • Purpose
    • Protect the soil from _______________
    • Tie-up nutrients
    • Prevent ____________ growth
  • Cover crops are most commonly fall-seeded
  • Examples of plants used
    • Cereal ______________
    • _______________ vetch
soil amendments fertilizers
Soil amendments/ Fertilizers

Animal manures

  • Are intermediate between a soil amendment and a fertilizer
  • Vary greatly in their ___________ composition
    • Caused by:
      • Animal
      • Feed used
      • Type of litter or bedding
      • Degree of composting or decomposition
    • Must be _________________ before use
animal manures
Animal Manures
  • Problems with manures
    • May contain harmful or undesirable contaminants
    • _________ and other harmful bacteria may be in fresh manure
    • Manures are _________ in nutrients compared to synthetic fertilizers
  • The most common commercially available types of manures
    • ____________ manure
    • Chicken (Poultry) manure
table typical composition of manures
Table: Typical Composition of Manures

Composition (% Dry Matter)

fertilizers
Fertilizers

Introduction

  • Plants take up the same nutrients whichever category of fertilizer is used
  • Several categories of fertilizers
    • ____________ versus synthetic
    • Rapid versus slow _____________
    • Solid versus liquid
organic fertilizers
Organic Fertilizers
  • Advantages
    • Nutrients are released ________________
      • May improve the taste of the vegetable
      • Nutrients are less likely to leach
    • May benefit the soil microorganisms
  • Problems
    • Are low in potassium
      • “Semi-organic” or “________________ based”
    • Cost per unit of nutrient
organic fertilizers14
Organic Fertilizers
  • Rapid release forms of plant nutrients
    • Most of the plant nutrients are available soon after application of the fertilizer
    • Most organic examples are general compound fertilizers contain a number of ________ nutrients
organic fertilizers rapid release
Organic Fertilizers – Rapid release
  • Animal byproducts
  • Source are processing plants or slaughterhouses
  • Include
    • Dried ________
    • Fish meal
    • _________ meal
organic fertilizers rapid release16
Organic Fertilizers – Rapid release
  • Bone meal
    • Excellent source of phosphorus and _____________
    • Problem
      • Might transmit diseases
      • Mad cow
      • ____________
    • No evidence that has occurred
organic fertilizers17
Organic Fertilizers
  • Slow release
    • Are either plant byproducts or ground rock materials
    • Release nutrients over a growing season or more
    • Examples
      • _______________ meal
      • Rock __________
      • Greensand
organic fertilizers18
Organic Fertilizers
  • Slow release
    • Plant byproducts
    • _________ meal
      • Rich in minor nutrients
      • Contains 60 to 70 different chemical compounds
organic fertilizers19
Organic Fertilizers
  • Rock phosphate
    • A finely ground natural rock powder
    • There are two kinds:
      • Hard rock phosphate
      • __________ phosphate
  • Potassium
    • Rock potash (greensand)
    • Wood ashes
      • Are very ____________
organic fertilizers20
Organic Fertilizers
  • Liquid fertilizers
    • Fertilizer nutrients are dissolved in __________
    • Advantages
      • Easy to apply
      • The nutrients are available immediately
    • Problems
      • Can injure plants
      • Easy to over apply
      • May ______________ or contaminate surface waters
    • Organic Examples
      • ________________ teas
      • Manure teas
      • Seaweed extract
synthetic fertilizers
Synthetic Fertilizers

Introduction

  • Many “_________________” fertilizers are derived from natural deposits
    • The nutrients are concentrated
    • Converted into a form that is readily available in the soil
synthetic fertilizers23
Synthetic Fertilizers
  • Advantages
    • Easy to apply
    • ________________
    • Are readily available
  • Disadvantages
    • May easily be over-applied
    • Can lead to ___________ build-up
    • May have adverse effects on soil organisms
    • Can be leached from __________ zone
synthetic fertilizers24
Synthetic Fertilizers
  • Nitrogen fertilizer
    • Most important component of synthetic fertilizers
    • Synthesized from nitrogen in the air
      • Offshoot of World War II ammunition production
      • Production is very _________________ intensive
    • Forms of nitrogen fertilizer
      • Ammonia
      • _____________
      • Urea