Road Pricing in Canada. Robin Lindsey Transportation Futures: Ontario Road Pricing Forum , November 13, 2008. Outline. Tolled facilities in Canada Costs of congestion in major cities Candidate road pricing schemes for Montréal, Vancouver and Toronto. History of road pricing in Canada.
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Transportation Futures: Ontario Road Pricing Forum, November 13, 2008
(Broadly similar to U.S.)
Constructed via diverse mechanisms
Coquihalla highway (1986): public
Highway 407 (1997): publicly funded, now private
Confederation Bridge (1997): PPP - finance, design, build, operate
All recently tolled facilities are new or reconstructed
Only 199 km tolled
Compare: Over 8,500 km. of toll roads in the US
Toll revenues of $469 million (2007) = 0.4% of total personal expenditures on road travel
Tolls are not congestion charges
Flat except on Highway 407
No dynamic pricing
Privately owned and operated
Regulated via minimum annual traffic counts
Congestion relief on parallel facilities less than planned
Travel demand forecasting models in nine largest urban areas used to quantify costs of congestion in:
congestion-related costs of accidents, noise, local emissions, road damage & behavioral adaptations
Cost-benefit analyses required
Main choice criteria:
Proposed by others (Montréal, Vancouver)
Existing investment plans
Details in Lindsey (2008)
Inspiration: Mayor Gérard Tremblay, 2007 City Transportation Plan
Proposed in 1993 Livable Region Strategic Plan (Transport 2021)
Congestion imposes high costs in the largest Canadian cities
Toll revenues would help to fund road and public transit investments, operations & maintenance
Experiencein other countries sufficient to warrant consideration of congestion pricing in Canada
Main barriers to road pricing are public and (some) government opposition
Alternative to infrastructure-based technologies
Charging for parking, emissions & insurance
Supplement or replacement for fuel taxes
Environmental benefits and revenue generation gain importance relative to congestion relief
Case for Canada
Long intercity driving distances
High per-capita transportation infrastructure costs
Above-average susceptibility to global warming
Bryan, N. 1972. More Taxes and More Traffic. Canadian Tax Papers, No. 55, Canadian Tax Foundation, Toronto.
Kitchen, H. 2008. “Financing Public Transit and Transportation in the Greater Toronto Area and Hamilton: Future Initiatives”, January, The Residential and Civil Construction Alliance of Ontario (www.infracoalition.ca).
Lindsey, R. 2007. “Congestion Relief: Assessing the Case for Road Tolls in Canada.” C.D. Howe Institute Commentary 248.
Lindsey, R. 2008. “Prospects for Urban Road Pricing in Canada.” G. Burtless and J. Rothenberg Pack (eds.), Brookings Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs: 2008, 235-293.
Mylvaganam, C. and Borins, S. 2004. If you Build it ... Business, Government and Ontario’s Electronic Toll Highway, University of Toronto Centre for Public Management, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.