Chapter 7 fires within igneous activity
1 / 35

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Updated On :

Chapter 7 Fires Within: Igneous Activity The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions Characteristics of a magma determine the “violence” or explosiveness of an eruption Composition Temperature Dissolved gases The above three factors actually control the viscosity of a magma

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - Anita

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 7 fires within igneous activity l.jpg

Chapter 7 Fires Within: Igneous Activity

The nature of volcanic eruptions l.jpg
The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions

  • Characteristics of a magma determine the “violence” or explosiveness of an eruption

    • Composition

    • Temperature

    • Dissolved gases

  • The above three factors actually control the viscosity of a magma

  • The nature of volcanic eruptions3 l.jpg
    The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions

    • Viscosity is a measure of a material’s resistance to flow

    • Factors affecting viscosity

      • Temperature—Hotter magmas are less viscous

      • Composition—Silica (SiO2) content

        • Higher silica content = higher viscosity

        • Lower silica content = lower viscosity

    The nature of volcanic eruptions4 l.jpg
    The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions

    • Dissolved gases

      • Gases expand within a magma as it nears Earth’s surface due to decreasing pressure

      • The violence of an eruption is related to how easily gases escape

  • In summary

    • Basaltic lavas = mild eruptions

    • Rhyolitic or andesitic lavas = explosive eruptions

  • Materials extruded from a volcano l.jpg
    Materials Extruded from a Volcano

    • Lava flows

      • Basaltic lavas exhibit fluidbehavior

      • Types of basaltic flows

        • Pahoehoe lava (resembles a twisted or ropey texture)

        • Aa lava (rough, jagged blocky texture)

  • Dissolved gases

    • 1%–6% by weight

    • Mainly H2O and CO2

  • Aa lava flow l.jpg
    Aa Lava Flow

    Figure 7.5 A

    Materials extruded from a volcano7 l.jpg
    Materials Extruded from a Volcano

    • Pyroclastic materials—“Fire fragments”

      • Types of pyroclastic debris

        • Ash and dust—Fine, glassy fragments

        • Pumice—Porous rock from “frothy” lava

        • Cinders—Pea-sized material

        • Lapilli—Walnut-sized material

        • Particles larger than lapilli

          • Blocks—Hardened or cooled lava

          • Bombs—Ejected as hot lava

    A volcanic bomb l.jpg
    A Volcanic Bomb

    Figure 7.6 (top)

    Volcanic structures l.jpg
    Volcanic Structures

    • General features

      • Opening at the summit of a volcano

        • Crater—Summit depression <1 km diameter

        • Caldera—Summit depression >1 km diameter produced by collapse following a massive eruption

      • Vent—Surface opening connected to the magma chamber

      • Fumarole—Emit only gases and smoke

    Volcanic structures10 l.jpg
    Volcanic Structures

    • Types of volcanoes

      • Shield volcano

        • Broad, slightly domed shape

        • Generally cover large areas

        • Produced by mild eruptions of large volumes of basaltic lava

        • Example = Mauna Loa on Hawaii

    Mauna loa a shield volcano on hawaii l.jpg
    Mauna Loa, a Shield Volcano on Hawaii

    Figure 7.9

    Volcanic structures12 l.jpg
    Volcanic Structures

    • Cinder cone

      • Built from ejected lava (mainly cinder-sized) fragments

      • Steep slope angle

      • Small size

      • Frequently occur in groups

    Cinder cone volcano l.jpg
    Cinder Cone Volcano

    Figure 7.12

    Volcanic structures14 l.jpg
    Volcanic Structures

    • Composite cone (stratovolcano)

      • Most are located adjacent to the Pacific Ocean (e.g., Fujiyama, Mount St. Helens)

      • Large, classic-shaped volcano (1000s of ft. high and several miles wide at base)

      • Composed of interbedded lava flows and pyroclastic debris

      • Most violent type of activity (e.g., Mt. Vesuvius)

    Mount st helens p rior to the 1980 eruption l.jpg
    Mount St. Helens—Prior to the 1980 Eruption

    Mount st helens after the 1980 eruption l.jpg
    Mount St. Helens after the 1980 Eruption

    Volcanic structures18 l.jpg
    Volcanic Structures

    • Nuée ardente

      • Nuée ardente—A deadly pyroclastic flow

        • Fiery pyroclastic flow made of hot gases infused with ash and other debris

        • Also known as glowing avalanches

        • Move down the slopes of a volcano at speeds up to 200 km per hour

    A nue ardente on mount st helens l.jpg
    A Nueé Ardente on Mount St. Helens

    Figure 7.15

    Volcanic structures20 l.jpg
    Volcanic Structures

    • Lahar—Volcanic mudflow

      • Mixture of volcanic debris and water

      • Move down stream valleys and volcanic slopes, often with destructive results

    Other volcanic landforms l.jpg
    Other Volcanic Landforms

    • Caldera

      • Steep-walled depressions at the summit

      • Generally >1 km in diameter

      • Produced by collapse

  • Pyroclastic flow

    • Felsic and intermediate magmas

    • Consists of ash, pumice, and other debris

    • Example = Yellowstone Plateau

  • Slide22 l.jpg

    Formation of Crater Lake, Oregon

    Figure 7.18

    Other volcanic landforms23 l.jpg
    Other Volcanic Landforms

    • Fissure eruptionsandlava plateaus

      • Fluid basaltic lava extruded from crustal fractures called fissures

      • Example = Columbia River Plateau

  • Lava domes

    • Bulbous mass of congealed lava

    • Associated with explosive eruptions of gas-rich magma

  • Other volcanic landforms24 l.jpg
    Other Volcanic Landforms

    • Volcanic pipes and necks

      • Pipes—Short conduits that connect a magma chamber to the surface

      • Volcanic necks (e.g., Shiprock, New Mexico)—Resistant vents left standing after erosion has removed the volcanic cone

    Intrusive igneous activity l.jpg
    Intrusive Igneous Activity

    • Most magma is emplaced at depth in the Earth

      • Once cooled and solidified, is called a pluton

  • Nature of plutons

    • Shape—Tabular (sheetlike) vs. massive

    • Orientation with respect to the host (surrounding) rock

      • Concordant vs. discordant

  • Intrusive igneous activity26 l.jpg
    Intrusive Igneous Activity

    • Types of intrusive igneous features

      • Dike—A tabular, discordant pluton

      • Sill—A tabular, concordant pluton (e.g., Palisades Sill in New York)

      • Laccolith

        • Similar to a sill

        • Lens or mushroom-shaped mass

        • Arches overlying strata upward

    Igneous structures l.jpg
    Igneous Structures

    Figure 7.22 B

    Intrusive igneous activity29 l.jpg
    Intrusive Igneous Activity

    • Intrusive igneous features continued

      • Batholith

        • Largest intrusive body

        • Surface exposure >100+ km2 (smaller bodies are termed stocks)

        • Frequently form the cores of mountains

    Plate tectonics and igneous activity l.jpg
    Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity

    • Global distribution of igneous activity is not random

      • Most volcanoes are located within or near ocean basins

      • Basaltic rocks = oceanic and continental settings

      • Granitic rocks = continental settings

    Distribution of some of the world s major volcanoes l.jpg
    Distribution of Some of the World’s Major Volcanoes

    Figure 7.26

    Plate tectonics and igneous activity32 l.jpg
    Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity

    • Igneous activity at plate margins

      • Spreading centers

        • Greatest volume of volcanic rock is produced along the oceanic ridge system

        • Mechanism of spreading

          • Decompression melting occurs as the lithosphere is pulled apart

          • Large quantities of basaltic magma are produced

    Plate tectonics and igneous activity33 l.jpg
    Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity

    • Subduction zones

      • Occur in conjunction with deep oceanic trenches

        • An island arc if in the ocean

        • A volcanic arc if on a continental margin

      • Associated with the Pacific Ocean Basin

        • Region around the margin is known as the “Ring of Fire”

        • Majority of world’s explosive volcanoes

    Plate tectonics and igneous activity34 l.jpg
    Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity

    • Intraplate volcanism

      • Occurs within a tectonic plate

      • Localized volcanic region in the overriding plate is called a hot spot

        • Produces basaltic magma sources in oceanic crust (e.g., Hawaii and Iceland)

        • Produces granitic magma sources in continental crust (e.g., Yellowstone Park)