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IP Address Sirak Kaewjamnong Three Level of Address Host name ratree.psu.ac.th Internet IP address 192.168.100.3 (32 bits address with “ dot-decimal ” notation) Station address : Hardware address assigned to network interface card, refer to MAC address or Ethernet Address (48 bits)

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ip address

IP Address

Sirak Kaewjamnong

three level of address
Three Level of Address
  • Host name
    • ratree.psu.ac.th
  • Internet IP address
    • 192.168.100.3

(32 bits address with “dot-decimal” notation)

  • Station address : Hardware address assigned to network interface card, refer to MAC address or Ethernet Address (48 bits)
    • 00:5c:f0:3b:00:4a
converting host name to mac address
cs05.cs.psu.ac.th

172.28.80.96

00:50:ba:49:9d:b9

Resolve IP address by Domain Name System(DNS)

Resolve MAC address by Address Resolution Protocol(ARP)

Converting Host Name to MAC Address
ip address with router
IP address associated with interface (not machine)

Each interface has its own IP address

Machine with more than one interface called multi-home

Router is multi-homed machine

Multi-homed not to be router

IP Address with Router

172.28.80.15

172.28.80.16

172.28.85.116

172.28.85.120

172.28.85.1

172.28.80.1

192.168.99.39

Internet

192.168.98.11

192.168.100.4

192.168.100.3

192.168.100.1

addressing concept
Addressing Concept
  • Partitions address into 2 fields
    • network address
    • node address
ip address6

32 bits

8,16,24 bits

Network

Host

32 bits

8 bits

8 bits

8 bits

8 bits

.

.

.

172

28

80

96

10101100

00011100

01010000

01100000

IP Address
ip address class

8

16

24

32

Class A

0

Network ID

Host ID

Class B

10

Network ID

Host ID

Class C

110

Network ID

Host ID

Class D

1110

Multicast Address

Class E

11110

Unused

IP Address Class

32 bits address length, contain 2 parts

  • Network identifier
  • Host identifier
ip address class8
IP Address Class

A 0 7 24 0.0.0.0 -127.255.255.255 224 16,677,214

B 10 14 16 128.0.0.0 -191.255.255.255 216 65,534

C 110 21 8 192.0.0.0 -223.255.255.255 28 254

D 1110 28 - 224.0.0.0-239.255.255.255

E 11110 27 - 240.0.0.0-247.255.255.255

Initial

bits

Bit

net

range

address

spaces

Class

Bit

host

usable

special address
Special Address
  • Host ID “all 0s” is reserved to refer to network number
    • 192.168.100.0, 158.108.0.0, 18.0.0.0
  • Host ID “all 1s” is reserved to broadcast to all hosts on a specific network
    • 192.168.100.255, 158.108.255.255, 18.255.255.255
  • Address 0.0.0.0 means “default route”
  • Address 127.0.0.0 means “this node” (local loopback). Message sent to this address will never leave the local host
  • Address 255.255.255.255 is reserve to broadcast to every host on the local network (limited broadcast)
private address
Private Address

Reserve for Intranet or private network

  • 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 (1 class A )
  • 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 (16 class B)
  • 192.168.0.0 – 192.128.255.255 (256 class C)
problem with class assignment

Class B

Class A

C

D

E

Problem with Class Assignment
  • Class A takes 50 % range
  • Class B takes 25 % range
  • Class C take 12.5 % range

These leads to:

  • address wasteful (specially in class A)
  • running out of IP address
how to assigns ip address rfc 1466
How to assigns IP Address(RFC 1466)
  • Class A : no allocations will be made at this time
  • Class B: allocations will be restricted. To apply:
    • organization presents a subnetting more than32 subnets
    • organization more than 4096 hosts
  • class C: divided into allocated block to distributed reginal
class c assignment
Class C Assignment
  • Assignment is based on the subscriber ‘s 24 month projection according to the criteria:

1. Requires fewer than 256 addresses : 1 class C network

2. Requires fewer than 512 addresses : 2 contiguous class C networks

3. Requires fewer than 1024 addresses : 4 contiguous class C networks

4. Requires fewer than 2048 addresses : 8 contiguous class C networks

5. Requires fewer than 4096 addresses : 16 contiguous class C networks

6. Requires fewer than 8192 addresses : 32 contiguous class C networks

7. Requires fewer than 16384 addresses : 64 contiguous class C networks

problem with large network

...

150.0.255.254

150.0.0.1

150.0.0.2

Problem with Large Network
  • Class B “Flat Network” more than 60,000 hosts
    • How to manage?
    • Performance?
problem with large network15

150.0.10.1

150.0.40.1

150.0.200.1

150.0.1.1

150.0.10.2

150.0.40.2

150.0.200.2

150.0.1.2

Router

Problem with Large Network
  • Class B “subdivided network” to smaller group with router
subnetwork benefits
Subnetwork Benefits
  • Increase the network manager’s control the address space
  • Easy to allocate the address space
  • Better network performance
  • Hide routing structure from remote routers, thus reducing routes in their routing tables
  • Subdivide on IP network number is an important initial task of network managers
how to assign subnet

host ID

Network ID

Subnet address

Host address

Choose

appropriate size

How to assign subnet
  • Divide host ID into 2 pieces
  • Class B address such as 150.0 might use its third byte to identify subnet
    • subnet1 150.0.1.X X = host address range from 1-254
    • subnet2 150.0.200.X
subnet mask
Subnet Mask
  • 32 bit number, tell router to recognize the subnet field, call subnet mask
  • subnet rule: The bit covering the network and subnet part of address are set to 1
  • Example class B with 24 bits mask

1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 0000 0000

subnet mask = 255.255.255.0

* zero bit are used to mask out the host number resulting the network address

subnet mask19
Subnet Mask

Subnet mask 255.255.255.0 for class B tells:

  • network has been partition to 254 subnets

150.10.1.X to 150.10.254.X

  • logic “and” between IP address with mask yields network address

150.10.1.55 150.10.240.243

and and

255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0

150.10.1.0 150.10.240.0

subnet mask bits
Subnet Mask Bits

Use contiguous subnet mask

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 128

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 192

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 = 224

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 = 240

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 = 248

1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 = 252

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 = 254

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 255

subnet class b example
Subnet Class B Example
  • 255.255.0.0 (0000 0000 0000 0000)

0 subnet with 65534 hosts (default subnet)

  • 255.255.192.0 (1100 0000 0000 0000)

2 subnets with 16382 hosts

  • 255.255.252.0 (1111 1100 0000 0000)

62 subnets with 1022 hosts

  • 255.255.255.0 (1111 1111 0000 0000)

254 subnets with 254 hosts

  • 255.255.255.252 (1111 1111 1111 11000)

16382 subnets with 2 hosts

subnet class c example
Subnet Class C Example
  • 255.255.255.0 ( 0000 0000)

0 subnets with 254 hosts (default subnet)

  • 255.255.255.192 (1100 0000)

2 subnets with 62 hosts

  • 255.255.255.224 (1110 0000)

6 subnets with 30 hosts

  • 255.255.255.240 (1111 0000)

14 subnets with 14 hosts

subnet interpretation
Subnet Interpretation

IP Address Subnet mask Interpretation

158.108.2.71 255.255.255.0 host 71 on subnet 158.108.2.0

150.10.25.3 255.255.255.192 host 3 on subnet 150.10.25.0

130.122.34.132 255.255255.192 host 4 on subnet 130.122.34.128

200.190.155.66 255.255.255.192 host 2 on subnet 200.190.155.64

18.20.15.2 255.255.0.0 host 15.2 on subnet 18.20.0.0

class b subnet with router
Class B Subnet with Router

Router is used to separate network

Picture from Kasetsart University

subnet routing
Subnet Routing

Traffic is route to a host by looking “bit wise AND” results

if dest IP addr & subnet mask = = my IP addr & subnet mask

send packet on local network { dest IP addr is on the same subnet}

else

send packet to router {dest IP address is on difference subnet}

type of subnet
Type of Subnet
  • Static subnet: all subnets in the subnetted network use the same subnet mask
    • pros: simply to implement, easy to maintain
    • cons: wasted address space (consider a network of 4 hosts with 255.255.255.0 wastes 250 IPs)
  • Variable Length Subnet : the subnets may use difference subnet masks
    • pros: utilize address space
    • cons: required well managment
variable length subnet mask
Variable Length Subnet Mask
  • General idea of VLSM
    • A small subnet with only a few hosts needs a subnet mask that accommodate only few hosts
    • A subnet with many hosts need a subnet mask to accomdate the large number of hosts
  • Network Manager’s responsibility to design and appropriate VLSM
vlsm sample case
VLSM Sample Case

Picture from Kasetsart university

address allocation problem
Address Allocation Problem
  • Exhaustion of the class B network address space
  • The lack of a network class of size which is appropriate for mid-sizes organization
    • class C, with a max of 254 hosts, too small
    • While class B, with a max of 65534 hosts, too large
  • Allocate block of class C instead and downside is more routes entry in routing table
routing table problems
Routing Table Problems
  • Issue multiple block class C addresses (instead single class B address) solves a running out of class B address
  • Introduces problems of routing table
    • By default, a routing table contains an entry for every network
    • How large a routing table should be for all class C networks?
  • Growth of routing table in the internet routers beyond the ability of current software and hardware manage
size of the routing table at the core of the internet
Size of the Routing Table at the core of the Internet

Source: http://www.telstra.net/ops/bgptable.html

slide33

Prefix Length Distribution

70000

60000

50000

40000

Number of Prefixes

30000

20000

10000

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

Prefix Length

Source: Geoff Huston, Oct 2001

how to solve
How to solve
  • Topological allocate IP address assignment
  • We divide the world into 8 regions (RFC 1466)

Multi regional 192.0.0.0 - 193.255.255.255

Europe 194.0.0.0 - 195.255.255.255

Others 196.0.0.0 - 197.255.255.255

North America 198.0.0.0 - 199.255.255.255

Central/South America 200.0.0.0 - 201.255.255.255

Pacific Rim 202.0.0.0 - 203.255.255.255

Others 204.0.0.0 - 205.255.255.255

Others 206.0.0.0 - 207.255.255.255

IANA Reserved 208.0.0.0 - 223.255.255.255

classless interdomain routing
Classless Interdomain Routing
  • Class C address’s concept becomes meaningless on these route between domain, the technique is callClassless Interdomain Routing or CIDR or Supernet
  • Kay concepts is to allocate multiple IP address in the way that allow summarization into a smaller number of routing table (route aggregate)
  • CIDR is supported by BGP4 and based on route aggregation
    • 16 class C addresses can be summarized to a single routing entry (router can hold a single route entry for a main trunks between these areas)
supernetting
Supernetting
  • An organization has been allocate a block of class C address in 2n with contiguous address space
    • archive by using bits which belongs to the network address as hosts bits
    • class C example : altering the default class C subnet mask such that some bit change from 1 to 0

(Super) netmask

4 class C networks appear

to network outside as a

single network

11111111 11111111 11111100 00000000

255.255.252.0

supernetting sample
Supernetting Sample
  • An organization with 4 class C

193.0.32.0 , 193.0.33.0 , 193.0.34.0 , 193.0.35.0

11111111 11111111 11111100 00000000 mask 255.255.252.0

11000001 00000000 00100000 00000000 net 193.0.32.0

11000001 00000000 00100001 00000000 net 193.0.33.0

11000001 00000000 00100010 00000000 net 193.0.34.0

11000001 00000000 00100011 00000000 net 193.0.35.0

Bit wise AND results 193.0.32.0: 11000001 00000000 00100000 00000000

  • This organization’s network has changed from 4 net to a single net with 1,022 hosts
the longest match supernetting
The longest Match Supernetting
  • Europe has 194.0.0.0 - 195.255.255.255 with mask 254.0.0.0
  • A case of one organization (195.0.16.0 - 195.0.36.0 mask 255.255.254.0) needs different routing entry
  • datagrams 195.0.20.1 matches both Europe’s and this organization. How to do?
  • Routing mechanism selects the longest mask (255.255.254.0 is longer than 254.0.0.0), then route to the organization
summary
Summary
  • Routing decisions are now made based on masking operations of the entries 32 bits address, hence the term “classes”
  • No existing routes is changed
  • CIDR slows down the growth of routing tables (current 130K entries in core routers)
  • Short term solution to solve routing problem
  • limitation: not all host/router software allows supernet mask
ipv4 s limitations
IPv4’s Limitations
  • Two driving factors : addressing and routing
  • Addressing : address depletion concerns
    • Internet exhaust the IPv4 address space between 2005 and 2011 [RFC1752].
  • Routing : routing table explosion
    • Currently ~120K entries in core router
  • More factors...
    • Opportunity to optimized on many years of deployment experience
    • New features needed : multimedia, security, mobile, etc..
key issues
Key Issues

The new protocol MUST

  • Support large global internetworks
  • A clear way to transition IPv4 based networks
what is ipv6
What is IPv6?
  • IPv6 is short for "Internet Protocol Version 6".
  • IPv6 is the "next generation" protocol designed by the IETF to replace the current version Internet Protocol, IP Version 4
ipv6 key advantages
IPV6 Key Advantages
  • 128 bit fix length IP address
  • Real time support
  • Self-configuration of workstations or auto configuration
  • Security features
  • Support mobile workstations
  • Protocol remains the same principle
  • IPv4 compatibility
ipv6 address representation
IPV6 Address Representation
  • Hexadecimal values of the eight 16-bit pieces

x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x

  • Example

FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210

1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A

  • Compressed form: "::" indicates multiple groups of 16-bits of zeros.

1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A 1080::8:800:200C:417A

FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 FF01::101

0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 ::1

0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 ::

ipv6 address representation cont
IPV6 Address Representation(cont)
  • Mixed environment of IPv4 and IPv6 address

IPv4-compatible IPv6 address

technique for hosts and routers to dynamically tunnel IPv6

packets over IPv4 routing infrastructure

0:0:0:0:0:0:13.1.68.3 => :: 13.1.68.3

IPv4-mapped IPv6 address

represent the addresses of IPv4-only nodes (those that do not support IPv6) as IPv6 addresses

IPv4-only IPv6-compatible addresses are sometimes used/shown for sockets created by an IPv6-enabled daemon, but only binding to an IPv4 address. These addresses are defined with a special prefix of length 96 (a.b.c.d is the IPv4 address):

0:0:0:0:0:FFFF:129.144.52.38/96 => :: FFFF:129.144.52.38/96

http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Linux+IPv6-HOWTO/x324.html

format prefix
Format Prefix
  • Format Prefix :
    • Leading bits indicate specific type of an IPv6 address
    • The variable-length field
    • Represented by the notation:

IPv6-address/prefix-length

Example : the 60-bit prefix 12AB00000000CD3

12AB:0000:0000:CD30:0000:0000:0000:0000/60

12AB::CD30:0:0:0:0/60

12AB:0:0:CD30::/60

type of addresses
Type of Addresses

Three type of addresses

  • UNICAST : defines a single interface

A packet sent to a unicast address is delivered to the interface

identified by that address.

  • ANYCAST : defines a set of interfaces

A packet sent to an anycast address is delivered

to one of the interfaces

  • MULTICAST : defines a set of interfaces

A packet sent to a multicast address is delivered to

all interfaces identified by that address

address types
Address Types
  • Unspecified address, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 or ::
  • Loopback address, 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 of ::1
  • Global address, 2000::/3 and E000::/3

currently only 2000::/3 is being assigned

  • Link local address, FE80::/64
  • Site local address, FEC0::/10
address registries
Address Registries

Address registries for IPv6 are the same one as for IPv4, ARIN,RIPE and APNIC.

  • Only large network providers will ever obtain addresses directly from the registries, such as UNINET : one such provider in Thailand
  • If a /35 prefix is allocates, the registry internally will reserve a /32.
  • The basic unit of assignment to any organization is a /48 prefix
aggregatable unicast address

P3

P1

x2

X1

P2

P4

S2

S1

P6

S3

P5

S4

S5

S6

Aggregatable Unicast Address

Three level hierarchy:

  • Public Topology : providers and exchanges who provide public Internet transit services

(P1, P2, P3, P4, X1, X2, P5 and P6)

  • Site Topology : does not provide public transit service to nodes outside of the site

(S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6)

  • Interface Identifier: interfaces on links
aggregatable unicast address53
Aggregatable Unicast Address

3 13 8 24 16 64 bits

FP TLA ID RES NLA ID SLA ID Interface ID

Public Topology

Site

Topology

Interface

Identifier

FP=Format

Prefix= 001

TLA= Top Level Aggregation

RES= Reserved

NLA=Next-Level Aggregation

SLA=Site-Level Aggregation

header comparison
Header Comparison
  • Removed (6)
    • ID, Flags, frag offset
    • TOS, hlen
    • header checksum
  • Changed: (3)
    • total length=> payload
    • protocol => next header
    • TTL=> hop limit
  • Added: (2)
    • Traffic class
    • flow label
  • Expanded
    • address 32 bits to 128 bits

0 15 16 31

vers hlen TOS total length

identification flags frag offset

TTL protocol header checksum

source address

destination address

options and padding

20

bytes

IPv4

vers traffic class flow label

pay load length next header hop limit

source address

destination address

40

bytes

IPv6

ipv6 node configuration
IPv6 Node Configuration
  • Ethernet address is an IEEE EUI-48
  • Node address is an IEEE EUI-64
  • EUI-48 can be converted into an EUI-64 by inserting the bits FF FE between the 3 rd and 4th octets

EUI-48EUI-64

00:06:5B:DA:45:AD = 00:06:5B:FF:FE:DA:45:AD

auto configuration

Router adv.

Auto configuration

“Plug and play” feature

  • Stateless mode :via ICMP (no server required)
  • Stateful server mode : via DHCP

Prefix

4c00::/80

IPv6 Address

4c00::A0:C9FF:EF1E:A5B6

Link Address

00:A0:C9:1E:A5:B6

00:A0:C9:1E:A5:B6

DHCP request

DHCP

server

DHCP response

4c00::A0:C9FF:FE1E:A5B6

security
Security
  • Authentication/Confidential
  • Authentication:
    • MD5 based
  • Confidential :
    • payload encryption
    • Cipher Block Chaining mode of the Data Encryption Standard (DES-CBC)
support protocols
Support Protocols
  • ICMPv6 [RFC1885]
  • DHCPv6
  • DNS extensions to support IPv6 [RFC1886]
  • Routing Protocols
    • RIPv6 [RFC2080]
    • OSPFv6
    • IDRP
    • IS-IS
    • Cisco EIGRP
dual stack
Dual Stack
  • Dual stack hosts support both IPv4 and IPv6
  • Determine stack via DNS

Application

TCP

IPv6 IPv4

Ethernet

IPV6

Dual stack host

IPv4

tunneling automatic tunneling
Tunneling: automatic tunneling
  • Encapsulate IPv6 packet in IPv4
  • Rely on IPv4-compatible IPv6 address

IPv4/6 host

IPv6 host

IPv4

Network

2.3.4.5

::1.2.3.4

R1

R2

2.3.4.5

2.3.4.5

::2.3.4.5

4 hl TOS len

frag id frag ofs

TTL prot checksum

src: 1.2.3.4

dst: 2.3.4.5

6 traffic flow label

payload len next hops

src = ::1.2.3.4

(IPv4-compatible IPv6 adr)

dest = ::2.3.4.5

(IPv4-compatible IPv6 adr)

payload

6 traffic flow label

payload len next hops

src = ::1.2.3.4

(IPv4-compatible IPv6 adr)

dst = ::2.3.4.5

(IPv4-compatible IPv6 adr)

payload

4 hl TOS len

frag id frag ofs

TTL prot checksum

src: 1.2.3.4

dst: 2.3.4.5

6 traffic flow label

payload len next hops

src = ::1.2.3.4

(IPv4-compatible IPv6 adr)

dst = ::2.3.4.5

(IPv4-compatible IPv6 adr)

payload

tunneling configured tunneling
Tunneling : configured tunneling
  • Encapsulate IPv6 packet in IPv4
  • Rely on IPv6-only address

IPv6 host

IPv4

Network

IPv6 host

:: 2:3:4:5

::1:2:3:4

IPv6 address

(IPv4-compatible

address are

unavailable)

R1

R2

::2:3:4:5

R2

::2:3:4:5

6 traffic flow label

payload len next hops

src = ::1:2:3:4

(IPv6 adr)

dst = ::2:3:4:5

(IPv6 adr)

payload

4 hl TOS len

frag id frag ofs

TTL prot checksum

src = R1

dst =R2

6 traffic flow label

payload len next hops

src =::1:2:3:4

(IPv6 adr)

dst = ::2:3:4:5

(IPv6 adr)

payload

6 traffic flow label

payload len next hops

src = ::1:2:3:4

(IPv6 adr)

dst = ::2:3:4:5

(IPv6 adr)

payload

header translation
Header Translation
  • Full IPv6 system
  • need to support few IPv4-only systems
  • rely on IPv4-mapped IPv6 address

IPv4 host

IPv6

Network

IPv6 host

2.3.4.5

::1:2:3:4

R1

R2

2.3.4.5

::2.3.4.5

::2:3:4:5

6 traffic flow label

payload len next hops

src = ::1:2:3:4

(IPv6 adr)

dst = ::2.3.4.5

(IPv6 adr)

payload

6 traffic flow label

payload len next hops

src = ::1:2:3:4

(IPv6 adr)

dst = ::2.3.4.5

(IPv6 adr)

payload

4 hl TOS len

frag id frag ofs

TTL prot checksum

src = R1

dst =R2

payload

migration steps
Migration Steps
  • Upgrade DNS servers to handle IPv6 Address
  • Introduce dual stack systems that support IPv4 and IPv6
  • Rely on tunnels to connect IPv6 networks separated by IPv4 networks
  • Remove support for IPv4
  • Rely on header translation for IPv4-only systems
conclusion
Conclusion
  • IPv6 will provide for future Internet growth and enhancement
  • IPv6 :
    • solve the Internet scaling problem
    • support large hierarchical address
    • provide a flexible transition mechanism
    • interoperate with IPv4
    • provide a platform for new Internet functionality