Integrated Pest Management. IPM. Reading Assignment:. Norris et al., Chapter 1. Pests, People, and Integrated Pest Management. Pp. 1 – 14. Define “Pest”. FIFRA Definition of “Pest”.
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Norris et al., Chapter 1. Pests, People, and Integrated Pest Management. Pp. 1 – 14.
(1) any organism that interferes with the activities and desires of humans or (2) any other form of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life or virus, bacteria, or other micro-organism (except viruses, bacteria, or other micro- organism on or in living man or other living animals) which the Administrator declares to be a pest under section 25(c)(1).
An injurious and noxious or troublesome living organism [that] does not include a virus, bacteria, fungus or internal parasite that exists on humans or animals (British Columbia Pesticide Control Act,1997)
Includes insects, weeds, plant pathogens, birds, non-human mammals and other organisms which pose non-medical problems to humans and non-veterinary problems to animals
In order for an organism to be considered a pest, a damaging stage of the organism must be present in high enough numbers to cause actual injury to something valued by people.
Being a pest is not an inherent property of a species but, rather, a species (along with its population and age distribution at a given time and place) and a human valuation of the item being injured or damaged.
From Fig. 1-9
Injury – The effect that the pest has on the crop or commodity.
Damage – The effect that injury has on man’s valuation of that crop or commodity.
For crops, “Injury” is biological and “Damage” is economic. For non-crops, “Injury” = “Damage”.
Loss in value is great
enough to warrant
IPM – A system that maintains the population of any pest, or pests, at or below the level that causes damage or loss, and which minimizes adverse impacts on society and environment.
Attempts to balance the benefits of pest control actions with the costs when each is considered in the broadest possible terms.
Pest Management at the Crossroads
Total US Crop Acreage
Source: Benbrook Consulting Services Analysis of Data in Adoption of IPM in U.S. Agriculture, ERS/USDA, 1994
Cost to Farmer (Micro)
Cost to Society (Macro)
As an example, read the paper by Ehler & Bottrell in the Reading Assignments for Jan 14.
Come Prepared to Discuss
Most Control Decisions Combine One of Each of the Following:
Pest Management Program
4,000 – 5,000 BC Early China
2,500 BC Summerians
1,000 BC Egyptians
400 – 200 BC Greeks
200 BC – 100 AD Romans
1500 – 1700 AD Baconism
Pest Control Depended on Relative Crop Value
Organic chemical pesticides become routine on all crops
Norris et al. Chapter 2. Pests and Their Impacts. Pp. 15 - 45
In the 10 years before Silent Spring…
By Wednesday, Read Norris et al. Chapter 5, Comparative Biology of Pests
Abscission -- Leaf prematurely dropped by the plant, often while still green.
Bleaching Leaf turns white or nearly so. Usually caused by using the wrong herbicide.
Chlorosis Leaf tissue loses its chlorophyll and turns yellow. May occur in spots.
Chlorosis in soybeans. Individual leaves (left) and at the field level (right).
Crinkling Leaf takes on a crinkled texture. Usually associated with viruses or toxic effects of saliva from homopterous insects.
Crinkling may occur throughout the leaf (left) or may be confined to edges (right).
Cupping and Curling Leaves cup up or down or they curl inward from the edges.
Downward cupping along main vein of each leaflet in soybeans caused by Bean Common Mosaic Potyvirus
Edge Feeding Leaves chewed and eaten from the edges. Feeding lesions can have smooth or jagged edges. Usually caused by insects w/chewing mouthparts.
Leaf edge feeding on rhododendron leaves by adult black vine root weevils.
Hole Feeding Leaves have holes chewed through them. Caused by insects w/chewing mouthparts.
Yellow poplar weevil adult feeding on yellow poplar
Mines Caused by small, immature beetles or flies that live in-between the upper and lower leaf surfaces. The shape of the mine, along with the plant species being attacked, is useful in identifying the pest species involved.
Frass-linear leaf mine on birch leaf. Mines come in many shapes.
Mottling Leaf is not uniform in color but is, instead, a mottled mixture of different shades of green to yellow.
Soybean leaf mottling caused by the Bean Pod Mottle Virus.
Necrosis Areas of dead tissue which usually sloughs off over time.
Necrosis simply means dead tissue and may occur in any pattern. Necrosis may be in spots (top left), on leaf margins (above), or follow leaf veins (bottom left). Other patterns are possible as well.
Rolling Leaf is rolled up like a cigar. Usually caused by caterpillars that use the rolled leaf as a pupation chamber.
Leaves may be rolled entirely (above) or only partially (left).
Shothole Small holes in a straight line across the leaf. Usually caused by insects that bore through the developing leaf when the un-emerged leaf is still rolled up in the plant’s whorl.
Skeletonization Leaf tissue between the veins is removed but the veins remain intact leaving a skeleton-like appearance.
Lindin leaf skeletonized by Japanese beetle. Note that the distal leaf tissue is relatively normal looking indicating that the leaf veins are fully functional.
Spots Caused by fungal, bacterial, and viral diseases. Spots vary in size, shape and number and may be solid or only peripheral (e.g. ring spot, frog-eye spot).
Fungal leaf spot on soybean
Bacterial leaf spot on pepper
Viral ring spot on purple cone flower
Stippling Large numbers of tiny pin-prick feeding lesions cause by mites or other minute herbivores with piercing-sucking mouthparts.
Leaf stippling by leaf hoppers (sucking insect). Non-uniform pattern. Stippling = dead cells surrounding feeding puncture.
Windowpaning One side of the leaf is scrapped off leaving the other side intact and translucent. This gives the feeding lesion a window-like appearance. Primarily caused by some young beetle and moth larvae.
Cereal leaf beetle windowpaning on wheat (left); European corn borer windowpaning on corn (right).
Can occur on all tissues; leaves, stems/trunks, branches, roots, etc.
Ash flower galls caused by a mite
Galls on oak leaves from cynipid wasps
Olive knot gall (caused by Pseudmomonas bacteria) on olive main trunk
Western gall rust on Ponderosa pine branch
Soybean roots with galls from root knot nematode (right) vs. healthy root (left).
Tomato wilt is caused by fungi in the genus Fusarium which plugs xylem tissue preventing water/mineral transport.
Many insects, such as the squash vine borer feed on xylem tissue.
Bark beetle gallery (right): The adult Beetle lays a line of eggs along a gallery. The grubs hatch, eat phloem tissue until they mature.
Phloem discoloration and necrosis caused by spiroplasma infection.
Phloem discoloration by San Jose scale on apple.
Stalk breakage (lodging) caused by fungal stalk rot (left) and European corn borer (right)
Many plant pathogens and some insects cause abnormal growth in plants. Common forms are called rosettes (above) and witch’s brooms (right).
Varying degrees of corn rootworm injury (left) and resulting lodged plants (right)
Phytophthora root rot on alfalfa (left); Fusarium root rot on soybean (right)
Black rot on carrot (left), nematode injury to carrots (middle), carrot weevil injury (right)
Apple scab on apple (right)
Codling moth in apple
Left: Western flower thrips feeding injury on impatiens.
Above: Bean pod mottle virus in soybeans (left) vs. uninfected beans (right)
Chapter 5 is divided into 3 principal segments
Flowers are replaced by tiny plantlets which detach and grow into new plants. A form of asexual reproduction. These plants grow where there is a short growing season or where it is shady with few pollinators. This example is a wild onion Allium, where the flowers in the umbel inflorescence are replaced by vegetatively produced bulblets (little bulbs), and these bulblets sprout on the parent plant.
Oviparity -- Eggs deposited shortly after fertilization
Ovoviviparity -- Female deposits a larva or nymph instead of an egg
Viviparity -- Female feeds embryo after development has begun
Paedogenesis -- Larvae give birth without becoming an adult
Parthenogenesis -- Development without fertilization
Polyembryony -- A single egg results in more than one individual
Note: Many serious species have both sexual & asexual periods or stages.
Many insects, some pathogens & nematodes, many mammals, summer annual weeds
Some insects, some mammals, most winter annual weeds
Many nematodes, multivoltine arthropods, polycyclic pathogens, small mammals.
Weed seedbanks, some pathogens, cyst nematodes
Part I. Ecosystems and Pest Organisms
This is a 4-part unit:
Find an article (preferably online) that applies an ecological principle to pest management. Hand in one page containing a copy of the abstract of the article (with title and reference) and a brief description of the article and how an ecological principle was applied to a pest management problem. Identify which of the three ecological chapters from the text (Chap. 4, 6, or 7) your article most closely relates. We will group the articles by chapter and everyone will make a 2-3 minute presentation on his or her article.
Wilson & MacArthur studied species extinction rates on small islands & found:
Which is better?
Natural tendency is to go to the right (cf Fig. 4-1 in text, p. 69)
Agriculture typically keeps the ecosystem at this end.
Refer to pp. 71 – 72 in text. Notes on those definitions:
Large subject that is central to pest injury and pest management.
What is a trophic system?
With bottom-up control, increased production results in greater productivity at all trophic levels. With top-down control, consumers depress the trophic level on which they feed, and this indirectly increases the next lower trophic level.
Grazer food chains begin with algae and plants and end in a carnivore.
Decomposer chains are composed of waste and decomposing organisms such as fungi and bacteria
Pest/weed biocontrol components in red
Read Chapter 7, Ecosystem Biodiversity & IPM
Fig. 6-1, p. 129
Note: No crop, management, beneficial species, or environmental effect. Biological interactions between pests only.
(Pest A + Pest B) -> Outcome
Pest A -> Affector -> Pest B -> Outcome
Not Crop Pest
Not Crop Pest
Overwintering hosts for aphids.
4. cf. item 4 on p. 136 (cutworms & chinch bugs) & item 5 on p. 137 of text.
Contrast with benefits noted on p. 158
Here’s a small sample. Follow the links to read a little about each one & get the idea.