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Integrated Pest Management. IPM. Reading Assignment:. Norris et al., Chapter 1. Pests, People, and Integrated Pest Management. Pp. 1 – 14. Define “Pest”. FIFRA Definition of “Pest”.

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reading assignment
Reading Assignment:

Norris et al., Chapter 1. Pests, People, and Integrated Pest Management. Pp. 1 – 14.

fifra definition of pest
FIFRA Definition of “Pest”

(1) any organism that interferes with the activities and desires of humans or (2) any other form of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life or virus, bacteria, or other micro-organism (except viruses, bacteria, or other micro- organism on or in living man or other living animals) which the Administrator declares to be a pest under section 25(c)(1).

a working definition of pest
A Working Definition of “Pest”

An injurious and noxious or troublesome living organism [that] does not include a virus, bacteria, fungus or internal parasite that exists on humans or animals (British Columbia Pesticide Control Act,1997)

Includes insects, weeds, plant pathogens, birds, non-human mammals and other organisms which pose non-medical problems to humans and non-veterinary problems to animals

a pest must cause injury
A pest must cause injury

In order for an organism to be considered a pest, a damaging stage of the organism must be present in high enough numbers to cause actual injury to something valued by people.

pest is not a property of a species
“Pest” is not a property of a species

Being a pest is not an inherent property of a species but, rather, a species (along with its population and age distribution at a given time and place) and a human valuation of the item being injured or damaged.

four things required to make a pest fig 1 6 from text
Four things required to “make” a pest (Fig. 1-6 from text)
  • Pest species must be present at the right stage
  • Environmental criteria must be met.
  • Crop must be a susceptible variety and growth stage.
  • All of the above must occur at the same time.
this is a pathosystem concept
This is a pathosystem concept
  • Pathogen – host – environnment triad must all be right in order for an outbreak of disease.
  • When pest – crop – environment right, leads to “damage”.
how do pests become pests
How do pests become pests?
  • New crop introductions
  • New organism introductions
  • Production system practices
  • Removal of limiting factors
  • Low tolerance
the pest complex
The Pest Complex
  • The specific collection of pest species attacking a specific commodity or cropping system at any given time and location.
  • A given complex is divisible into different “groups”:
    • Invertebrates (arthropods, molluscs)
    • Vertebrates (mammals, fish, birds)
    • Weeds (perennials, summer/winter annuals)
    • Plant Pathogens (fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes)
each pest species has a given status within a complex
Each pest species has a given status within a complex
  • Key pests
  • Minor pests
  • Secondary pests
  • Occasional pests
  • Potential pests
  • Chronic pests
  • Migrants
  • Accessory Species
    • Vectors (Pest status often linked with pathogen)
    • Alternate Hosts
pests are often classified by the type of injury that they cause
Pests are often classified by the type of injury that they cause

General Terms

  • Direct Pests
  • Indirect Pests
  • Medical/Veterinary
pest injury versus damage
Pest Injury versus Damage

Injury – The effect that the pest has on the crop or commodity.

Damage – The effect that injury has on man’s valuation of that crop or commodity.

For crops, “Injury” is biological and “Damage” is economic. For non-crops, “Injury” = “Damage”.

working concept for damage
Working Concept for Damage

Measurable Damage

Maximum Value

}

{

Economic Damage

Loss in value is great

enough to warrant

control action.

Value

Injury

introducing pest management
Introducing “Pest Management”
  • “Management” -- a process by which information is collected and used to make good management decisions to reduce pest population impacts in a planned, coordinated way.
  • Requires:
    • Tolerance
    • Information
    • Strategy
ipm defined
IPM Defined

IPM – A system that maintains the population of any pest, or pests, at or below the level that causes damage or loss, and which minimizes adverse impacts on society and environment.

Attempts to balance the benefits of pest control actions with the costs when each is considered in the broadest possible terms.

the pest management continuum
The Pest Management Continuum

Pest Management at the Crossroads

See Handout.

distribution of us cropland over the ipm continuum
Distribution of US Cropland Over the IPM Continuum

Total US Crop Acreage

Source: Benbrook Consulting Services Analysis of Data in Adoption of IPM in U.S. Agriculture, ERS/USDA, 1994

limitation on ipm is macro vs micro economics
Limitation on IPM is Macro vs. Micro Economics

Social Cost

Cost to Farmer (Micro)

Cost to Society (Macro)

Farmer Cost

No IPM

Low

Medium

High

(Biointensive)

IPM Continuum

proponents of one flavor often attack other flavors
Proponents of one flavor often attack other flavors

As an example, read the paper by Ehler & Bottrell in the Reading Assignments for Jan 14.

Come Prepared to Discuss

two basic decision categories in ipm
Two Basic Decision Categories in IPM

Most Control Decisions Combine One of Each of the Following:

  • Tactical vs. Strategic
    • Tactics – Individual control options
    • Strategies – Combinations of Tactics
  • Preventative (Prophylactic) vs. Curative (Therapeutic)
    • Preventative – Before pest is a threat
    • Curative – When pest is threatening
hypothetical strategy
Hypothetical Strategy

Preventative

Tactics

Preventative

Rescue

ipm strategies are implemented via programs
IPM Strategies are Implemented Via Programs
  • Programs include pest monitoring and decision tools
  • Monitoring & decision tools tie into the strategy.
strategy vs program strategic plan
Strategy vs. Program (Strategic Plan)

Strategy

Pest Management Program

the evolution of ipm
The Evolution of IPM
  • Pest management is at least as old as agriculture.
  • It has evolved along with agriculture and technology
  • Generally, when technology as advanced, so has pest management (and vice versa).
  • Read Chapter 3 in text: Historical Development of Pest Management. Pp. 47 - 64
four logical periods
Four Logical Periods
  • Before WWI
  • Between WWI & WWII
  • Between WWII & 1962 (Silent Spring)
  • 1962 onward
before wwi
Before WWI
  • Periods of great advancement followed by decline.
  • Advancing periods characterized by:
    • Scientific inquiry into the nature of crops and pest biologies
    • Agricultural production for profit, specifically, for well-developed export markets.
early examples
Early Examples

4,000 – 5,000 BC Early China

2,500 BC Summerians

1,000 BC Egyptians

400 – 200 BC Greeks

200 BC – 100 AD Romans

1500 – 1700 AD Baconism

major events in baconism
Major Events in Baconism
  • Voyages of Discovery
  • Printing & Woodcuts
  • Perspective in Art
  • Microscope Invented
  • First Naturalists
  • Agricultural Markets Develop
  • Scientific Method
during the 19 th century
During the 19th Century
  • Great strides in biological knowledge (e.g. germ theory, evolution, genetics).
  • Industrial revolution leads to large scale farming and commercial markets
  • Modern pest groups are recognized (insects, weeds, pathogens)
  • Potato famine creates incentive for government funding of pest controls.
19 th century pest control advances
19th Century Pest Control Advances
  • Pressurized spray equipment nozzles invented
  • First modern success in biological control
  • First modern success in host plant resistance
  • Modern cultural tools developed
  • Most key pests’ biologies understood
by wwi
By WWI
  • Modern pest tactics were available but only a few were practical.
  • Developed countries were being invaded by major foreign pests.
between wwi wwii
Between WWI & WWII

Pest Control Depended on Relative Crop Value

  • High Value Crops – Became pesticide-oriented: Improved equipment and chemicals
  • Low Value Crops – Management-oriented. Emphasis on plant breeding, cultural methods, basic science & ecology
during the 1940 s
During the 1940’s
  • 1940 – DDT patented as an insecticide
  • 1942 – BHC found insecticidal
  • 1943 – 2,4-D found effective as a herbicide
  • 1946 – Gerhard Schrader hired by Bayer
  • 1946 – Houseflies found resistant to DDT
during 1950 s
During 1950’s

Organic chemical pesticides become routine on all crops

  • Viewed as “modern” farming
  • Low risk, “cost of business”
  • Few/no regulations
  • High prices/demand for US exports
  • Problems would not be addressed until 1962
problems arising during the 1950 s
Problems Arising During the 1950’s
  • Pest Resistance
  • Bird/Fish Kills
  • Human Poisonings
  • Secondary Pests
  • Biomagnification
pesticide treadmill
“Pesticide Treadmill”
  • Spray, kill pest & natural controls. Pest comes back. Repeat until…
  • Resistance in primary pest. Increase application rates. Kill broader range of natural controls.
  • Induce secondary pest
  • Begin spraying for secondary pest until…
  • Resistance in secondary pest
  • Change chemicals. Repeat sequence.
reading assignment43
Reading Assignment

Norris et al. Chapter 2. Pests and Their Impacts. Pp. 15 - 45

silent spring in context of its time
Silent Spring in Context of its Time

In the 10 years before Silent Spring…

  • Many new innovations were introduced. Pesticides were viewed as one of them.
  • Widespread attitude was that man could control nature. Pesticides were a manifestation of that view.
  • After the depression & war, people wanted to believe that the govt & corporations could be trusted.
silent spring coincided with other events
Silent Spring Coincided with Other Events
  • 1962 – John Glen’s first orbital flight.
  • 1962 – Thalidomide taken off market (problem identified 11/61, public outrage throughout 1962).
  • 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1961 – 1963 – MLK’s movement climaxes
  • 1961 – 1963 – US increased presence from 900 to 16,000 in Viet Nam
  • 1963 – JFK assassinated
silent spring aftermath
Silent Spring Aftermath
  • 1963 – President’s Science Advisory Committee issues report calling for reducing pesticides’ effects.
  • 1963 – Senate calls for creation of Environmental Protection Commission
  • Early – mid ’60’s – Increased sensitivity in analytical equipment enables detection of ppb’s. Including other chemicals.
  • 1965 – First pesticide food tolerances
as the effects spread
As the Effects Spread …
  • Public became increasingly negative toward chemical companies.
  • 1970 – EPA established.
  • 1972 – DDT banned (biomagnification)
  • 1973 – IBP project started
    • Emphasized pest control as a system
    • Introduced pest modeling/decision tools
    • Only for insects
ipm concept solidifies in the 1970 s
IPM Concept Solidifies in the 1970’s
  • 1975 – First textbook, Metcalf & Luckman (former had been criticized in SS)
  • 1978 – CIPM project replaces IBP
    • Included weeds & plant pathogens
    • Included economic analyses
  • 1978 – KY statewide IPM program began
ipm becomes ingrained
IPM Becomes Ingrained
  • 1984 – IPM becomes an annual federal budget item
  • Large-scale scouting programs rise, decline, and stabilize in the 1980’s
  • 1993 – National IPM Initiative: 75 % of US cropland to have IPM by 2000
  • 2000 – National effort to develop “Crop Profiles” and “IPM Strategic Plans”
current status
Current Status
  • IPM widely recognized as the proper approach to dealing with pests in production agriculture.
  • Implementation is up to individual farmers so it varies considerably
  • Concepts are well established but the technology continues to improve.
significance of pests in ipm
Significance of Pests in IPM

By Wednesday, Read Norris et al. Chapter 5, Comparative Biology of Pests

general impact of pests injury
General Impact of Pests -- Injury
  • Consumption of plant parts
  • Chemical toxins, elicitors, and signals
  • Physical damage
  • Loss of harvest quality
  • Cosmetic damage
  • Vectoring of pathogens
  • Direct contamination
general impact of pests non injury
General Impact of Pests – Non-injury
  • Costs incurred to implement controls
  • Environmental and social costs
  • Regulatory costs (embargoes, quarantines, shipment costs, etc.)
crop injury in more detail
Crop Injury in More Detail
  • Crop Injury
    • Tissue Injury
      • Leaves
      • Structural
      • Roots
      • Flowers and Fruiting/Reproductive Tissues
      • General Systemic Injury
    • Weed Effects
      • Competition for Water, Light, Nutrients
      • Allelopathy
      • Other Economic Effects
tissue injury to leaves
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Abscission -- Leaf prematurely dropped by the plant, often while still green.

tissue injury to leaves57
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Bleaching Leaf turns white or nearly so. Usually caused by using the wrong herbicide.

tissue injury to leaves58
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Chlorosis Leaf tissue loses its chlorophyll and turns yellow. May occur in spots.

Chlorosis in soybeans. Individual leaves (left) and at the field level (right).

tissue injury to leaves59
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Crinkling Leaf takes on a crinkled texture. Usually associated with viruses or toxic effects of saliva from homopterous insects.

Crinkling may occur throughout the leaf (left) or may be confined to edges (right).

tissue injury to leaves60
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Cupping and Curling Leaves cup up or down or they curl inward from the edges.

Downward cupping along main vein of each leaflet in soybeans caused by Bean Common Mosaic Potyvirus

tissue injury to leaves61
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Edge Feeding Leaves chewed and eaten from the edges. Feeding lesions can have smooth or jagged edges. Usually caused by insects w/chewing mouthparts.

Leaf edge feeding on rhododendron leaves by adult black vine root weevils.

tissue injury to leaves62
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Hole Feeding Leaves have holes chewed through them. Caused by insects w/chewing mouthparts.

Yellow poplar weevil adult feeding on yellow poplar

tissue injury to leaves63
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Mines Caused by small, immature beetles or flies that live in-between the upper and lower leaf surfaces. The shape of the mine, along with the plant species being attacked, is useful in identifying the pest species involved.

Frass-linear leaf mine on birch leaf. Mines come in many shapes.

tissue injury to leaves64
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Mottling Leaf is not uniform in color but is, instead, a mottled mixture of different shades of green to yellow.

Soybean leaf mottling caused by the Bean Pod Mottle Virus.

tissue injury to leaves65
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Necrosis Areas of dead tissue which usually sloughs off over time.

Necrosis simply means dead tissue and may occur in any pattern. Necrosis may be in spots (top left), on leaf margins (above), or follow leaf veins (bottom left). Other patterns are possible as well.

tissue injury to leaves66
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Rolling Leaf is rolled up like a cigar. Usually caused by caterpillars that use the rolled leaf as a pupation chamber.

Leaves may be rolled entirely (above) or only partially (left).

tissue injury to leaves67
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Shothole Small holes in a straight line across the leaf. Usually caused by insects that bore through the developing leaf when the un-emerged leaf is still rolled up in the plant’s whorl.

tissue injury to leaves68
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Skeletonization Leaf tissue between the veins is removed but the veins remain intact leaving a skeleton-like appearance.

Lindin leaf skeletonized by Japanese beetle. Note that the distal leaf tissue is relatively normal looking indicating that the leaf veins are fully functional.

tissue injury to leaves69
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Spots Caused by fungal, bacterial, and viral diseases. Spots vary in size, shape and number and may be solid or only peripheral (e.g. ring spot, frog-eye spot).

Fungal leaf spot on soybean

Bacterial leaf spot on pepper

Viral ring spot on purple cone flower

tissue injury to leaves70
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Stippling Large numbers of tiny pin-prick feeding lesions cause by mites or other minute herbivores with piercing-sucking mouthparts.

Leaf stippling by leaf hoppers (sucking insect). Non-uniform pattern. Stippling = dead cells surrounding feeding puncture.

tissue injury to leaves71
Tissue Injury to Leaves

Windowpaning One side of the leaf is scrapped off leaving the other side intact and translucent. This gives the feeding lesion a window-like appearance. Primarily caused by some young beetle and moth larvae.

Cereal leaf beetle windowpaning on wheat (left); European corn borer windowpaning on corn (right).

structural tissue injury
Structural Tissue Injury
  • Galls (may be on any tissue)
  • Interference with transport
    • Xylem injury
    • Phloem injury
  • Interference with structural support
  • Shape/appearance impact
    • Abnormal growth
    • Shoot dieback
galls
Galls

Can occur on all tissues; leaves, stems/trunks, branches, roots, etc.

Ash flower galls caused by a mite

Galls on oak leaves from cynipid wasps

Olive knot gall (caused by Pseudmomonas bacteria) on olive main trunk

Western gall rust on Ponderosa pine branch

Soybean roots with galls from root knot nematode (right) vs. healthy root (left).

structural tissue injury xylem
Structural Tissue Injury -- Xylem

Tomato wilt is caused by fungi in the genus Fusarium which plugs xylem tissue preventing water/mineral transport.

Many insects, such as the squash vine borer feed on xylem tissue.

structural tissue injury phloem
Structural Tissue Injury -- Phloem

Bark beetle gallery (right): The adult Beetle lays a line of eggs along a gallery. The grubs hatch, eat phloem tissue until they mature.

Phloem discoloration and necrosis caused by spiroplasma infection.

Phloem discoloration by San Jose scale on apple.

structural tissue injury interference with structural integrity
Structural Tissue Injury – Interference with Structural Integrity

Stalk breakage (lodging) caused by fungal stalk rot (left) and European corn borer (right)

structural injury abnormal growth
Structural Injury – Abnormal Growth

Many plant pathogens and some insects cause abnormal growth in plants. Common forms are called rosettes (above) and witch’s brooms (right).

root injury fibrous roots
Root Injury – Fibrous Roots

Varying degrees of corn rootworm injury (left) and resulting lodged plants (right)

Phytophthora root rot on alfalfa (left); Fusarium root rot on soybean (right)

root injury storage organs
Root Injury – Storage Organs

Black rot on carrot (left), nematode injury to carrots (middle), carrot weevil injury (right)

flower fruit injury
Flower & Fruit Injury

Apple scab on apple (right)

Codling moth in apple

Left: Western flower thrips feeding injury on impatiens.

Above: Bean pod mottle virus in soybeans (left) vs. uninfected beans (right)

weed effects
Weed Effects

Weed Groups

  • Algae (aquatic systems)
  • Mosses/liverworts (turf & nurseries)
  • Ferns/horsetails (pastureland, horticultural crops)
  • Gymnosperms (rangeland, forests, long-term no-till systems)
  • Angiosperms [monocotyledon & dicotyledon] (annuals, biennials, perennials)
weed impacts
Weed Impacts
  • Competitive -- yield loss (quantity and quality)
  • Parasitic effects (cf Norris et al., p 23 – 24)
  • Mechanical interference with farm implements
  • Other incidental
    • Seed contamination
    • Land valuation
    • Health & safety (hay fever, toxins, fire hazard)
comparative biology of pests
Comparative Biology of Pests

Chapter 5 is divided into 3 principal segments

  • Concepts in Pest Population Regulation
  • Dissemination, Invasion, and Colonization Processes
  • Pest Genetics
comparative biology of pests84
Comparative Biology of Pests
  • Concepts in Pest Population Regulation
    • Reproduction
    • Fecundity & Fertility
    • Population Generation Time
    • Longevity & Mortality
    • Quiescence and Dormancy
    • Heat Summation & Degree Days
    • Molting & Metamorphosis
    • Life Tables
    • Basic Life Cycle Models
1 reproduction vivipary
1. Reproduction -- “Vivipary”

In Plants

Flowers are replaced by tiny plantlets which detach and grow into new plants. A form of asexual reproduction. These plants grow where there is a short growing season or where it is shady with few pollinators. This example is a wild onion Allium, where the flowers in the umbel inflorescence are replaced by vegetatively produced bulblets (little bulbs), and these bulblets sprout on the parent plant.

1 insect reproduction
1. Insect Reproduction

Oviparity -- Eggs deposited shortly after fertilization

Ovoviviparity -- Female deposits a larva or nymph instead of an egg

Viviparity -- Female feeds embryo after development has begun

Paedogenesis -- Larvae give birth without becoming an adult

Parthenogenesis -- Development without fertilization

Polyembryony -- A single egg results in more than one individual

1 reproduction
1. Reproduction

Note: Many serious species have both sexual & asexual periods or stages.

individual and population development time
Individual and Population Development Time
  • Includes:
    • Fecundity & Fertility
    • Population Generation Time
    • Cycles per Season – note terms in Norris et al., p. 99.
    • Longevity and Mortality
  • Affects management response time
understand generic life cycles
Understand Generic Life Cycles

Many insects, some pathogens & nematodes, many mammals, summer annual weeds

Some insects, some mammals, most winter annual weeds

Many nematodes, multivoltine arthropods, polycyclic pathogens, small mammals.

Weed seedbanks, some pathogens, cyst nematodes

ecological basis for pest management

Ecological Basis for Pest Management

Part I. Ecosystems and Pest Organisms

ecological basis for pest management91
Ecological Basis for Pest Management
  • Part I -- Ecosystems & Pest Organisms
  • Part II -- Ecology of Interactions of Pests
  • Part III -- Ecosystem Biodiversity and IPM
  • Part IV -- Applying Ecological Principles to Managing Pest Populations

This is a 4-part unit:

assignment for friday feb 6
Assignment for Friday, Feb. 6

Find an article (preferably online) that applies an ecological principle to pest management. Hand in one page containing a copy of the abstract of the article (with title and reference) and a brief description of the article and how an ecological principle was applied to a pest management problem. Identify which of the three ecological chapters from the text (Chap. 4, 6, or 7) your article most closely relates. We will group the articles by chapter and everyone will make a 2-3 minute presentation on his or her article.

why study ecology in ipm
Why Study Ecology in IPM?
  • History of IPM is a history of applied ecology
  • Managing pests often relies on exploiting a pest’s ecological weaknesses.
  • Alternatively, one may manage the ecology in order to make a crop less vulnerable to pests.
  • Future of IPM lies in increasingly sophisticated ecological manipulations.
ecosystems pest organisms
Ecosystems & Pest Organisms
  • Ecosystem Organization & Succession
  • Definitions & Terminology
  • Trophic Dynamics
  • Limiting Resources & Competition
1 ecosystem organization succession
1. Ecosystem Organization & Succession
  • Species : "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups" (Ernst Mayr)
  • Individual: A single organism (bacterium, weed, nematode, insect); not always obvious.
  • Population : a collection of individuals of one species that exists in some defined geographical area
  • Guild: a group of species that exploit the same resource in a similar manner
  • Community: a group of populations occurring in the same geographical area
  • Ecosystem: a community of living organisms and the abiotic framework that supports them. Agroecosystem – An ecosystem dominated by humans that typically has few common or major species (crops) and numerous rare or minor species (some of which are pests).
  • Landscape: a cluster of interacting ecosystems
landscape ecology
Landscape Ecology

Crop Field

Crop Field

Crop Field

Migration

Crop Field

Crop Field

Surrounding Ecosystem(s)

Extinction

landscape ecology97
Landscape Ecology
  • Involves multiple populations interacting in time and space between several different ecosystems.
  • “Blinking Lights” Theory
  • Often presented as an application of “Island Biogeography” -- Concentrates on local population/species extinctions.
island biogeography landscape ecology
Island Biogeography & Landscape Ecology

Wilson & MacArthur studied species extinction rates on small islands & found:

  • When one species goes extinct, it is replaced so that there’s an equilibrium
  • Replacement species is not necessarily the same as the extinct population…may be another from the same guild.
  • Smaller islands have higher extinction rates than larger islands.
  • Extinction rates increase with increasing distance between islands
lesson agroecosystems can fragment landscapes
Lesson: Agroecosystems can fragment landscapes
  • Some species are stranded on their islands – increasing the chance that they might go locally extinct.
  • Reduction in biodiversity is good for pests which thrive in the agroecosystem anyway.
  • Note that reduction is in species diversity – includes number of spp. AND number of individuals.
green network concept
Green Network Concept
  • Maintain a network of contiguous patches & corridors that are not part of the agroecosystem.
  • Specific Things to do can be found at:
    • http://www.dal.ca/~dp/reports/zkidston/kidstonst.html#guidelines
    • http://www.dal.ca/~dp/reports/zkidston/guidelines.html
  • Enforcement/implementation?
ecological succession
Ecological Succession
  • An orderly, directional and therefore predictable process of development that involves changes in species structure and community processes over time.
  • Results from a modification of the physical environment by the community and culminates in a stabilized ecosystem in which maximum biomass and symbiotic functions are maintained.
succession sequence
Succession Sequence

Natural tendency is to go to the right (cf Fig. 4-1 in text, p. 69)

Agriculture typically keeps the ecosystem at this end.

implications of early succession systems
Implications of Early Succession Systems
  • Trophic cycles are disrupted (adds to the biodiversity problem)
  • Species good at invasion are favored
  • Nutrient cycles are altered, biomass does not accumulate/cycle
  • Energy flow is not webbed but, instead, directed toward one commodity
  • Ecology “resets” each cropping season
2 definitions and terminology
2. Definitions and Terminology

Refer to pp. 71 – 72 in text. Notes on those definitions:

  • Carnivores and Omnivores can be monophagous, oligophagous, or polyphagous
  • Host organisms do not necessarily host parasites, herbivorous insects also feed on “hosts”
  • Note distinction between parasites and parasitoids. Both can be internal or external (ectoparasites).
  • Add “Pathogen – A microbial parasite that causes disease. Primary – attacks a healthy host, secondary – attacks an injured/weakened host.”
3 trophic dynamics
3. Trophic Dynamics

Large subject that is central to pest injury and pest management.

  • General Concepts
  • Bottom-up versus top-down processes
  • Basic food chains – note the diagrams
        • Pathogens
        • Weeds
        • Webs (generalized and animal-based)
general concepts of trophic dynamics
General Concepts of Trophic Dynamics

What is a trophic system?

top down vs bottom up trophic systems
Top-Down vs Bottom-up Trophic Systems
  • Top-Down – Producers (plants) limit the growth of primary consumers (herbivores) which limit the growth of primary carnivores & so on.
  • Bottom-up – Top consumers limit growth at the next lowest level throughout the chain.
  • Note that “limit” can be an economic effect, not necessarily an ecological one
top down vs bottom up trophic system
Top-Down vs Bottom-Up Trophic System

With bottom-up control, increased production results in greater productivity at all trophic levels. With top-down control, consumers depress the trophic level on which they feed, and this indirectly increases the next lower trophic level.

BottomUp

Top Down

grazer vs decomposer systems
Grazer vs. Decomposer Systems

Grazer food chains begin with algae and plants and end in a carnivore.

Decomposer chains are composed of waste and decomposing organisms such as fungi and bacteria

food webs
Food Webs
  • Two or more trophic systems linked within a given ecosystem or landscape.
  • Three main categories in agroecosystems:
    • Animal-based (animal production systems)
    • Above-ground, plant based (Crop Production Systems [CPS])
    • Soil food web in CPS’s
  • The two CPS webs interact but are usually managed separately
components soil food web
Components Soil Food Web

Pest/weed biocontrol components in red

  • Herbivores – Root feeders (arthropods, microbes)
  • Pathogens – Microbes that attack underground organisms
  • Shredders – Chew up organic matter, increasing surface area & decomposition rate
  • Decomposers – Decompose organic matter
  • Predators – Maintain stability of above populations
limiting resources competition
Limiting Resources & Competition
  • Populations can be limited in several ways
    • Food & water
    • Shelter/Reservoir
  • Limitation can occur at any stage or time (e.g. overwintering)
  • Effectiveness dependent on population ecology of individual pest. Life history strategy important part of that ecology.
interactions between pest categories
Interactions Between Pest Categories

Read Chapter 7, Ecosystem Biodiversity & IPM

Fig. 6-1, p. 129

Note: No crop, management, beneficial species, or environmental effect. Biological interactions between pests only.

interactions between pest categories119
Interactions Between Pest Categories
  • Trophic Relationships
  • Environmental (Habitat) Modification Result
  • Mechanical Effects
  • Response to Control Tactics
    • Non-pesticide
    • Pesticide-related
  • “Interactions” may be:
    • Pest-pest or pest-crop
    • Measured in injury or damage
this subject excludes the direct effects of
This subject excludes the direct effects of:
  • Interactions within pest categories (i.e. – pathogen – pathogen). But note that viruses, bacteria, fungi, & nematodes are different “categories” for Norris et al.
  • Interactions between pests and their natural enemies
reading assignment for monday
Reading Assignment for Monday
  • Check the Reading Assignments page
    • Note the assignments that are covered in the exam
  • Chapter 8, pp. 172 – 208
direct vs indirect according to brown
Direct vs. Indirect According to Brown
  • Direct:

(Pest A + Pest B) -> Outcome

    • Outcome may be biological or economic
    • If Spp. A & B are present, outcome is realized
  • Indirect:

Pest A -> Affector -> Pest B -> Outcome

    • “Affector” may be another pest, management action, environmental effect, etc.
    • A & B & Affector must all be present for outcome to occur
direct interaction a b outcome
Direct Interaction(A + B) -> Outcome

Four possibilities

B

Not Crop Pest

Crop Pest

Not Crop Pest

A

Crop Pest

examples by category
Examples by Category
  • Green vegetable bug becomes a problem if provided with non-pest weeds.
  • Ants tending aphids.
  • Weeds as alternate hosts for pathogens.

Overwintering hosts for aphids.

4. cf. item 4 on p. 136 (cutworms & chinch bugs) & item 5 on p. 137 of text.

read these sections closely
Read these sections closely
  • Habitat Modification – Understand and be able to ‘compare & contrast’:
    • Altered Resource Concentration
    • Altered “Apparency”
    • Microenvironment Alteration
  • Interactions Due to Physical Phenomena
    • Physical Damage to Host
    • External Transport
    • Internal Transport
ecosystem and biodiversity in ipm
Ecosystem and Biodiversity in IPM
  • Why did monocultures become so widespread?
  • Can we expect monocultures to continue?
  • If so, how can we make biodiversity relevant? At what spatial scale will this relevancy be realized (cf. p. 157).
frequent disadvantages of biodiversity in cps
Frequent Disadvantages of Biodiversity in CPS

Contrast with benefits noted on p. 158

  • Increasing plant diversity decreases density of marketable commodities
  • Increased density/diversity of herbivores (cf. p. 136 – 137)
  • Increased alternative hosts for pathogens
  • Larger complex of species to be managed
  • More complex production system/equipment needed to deal with mixed plantings
  • Dilution of inputs (fertilizer, water)
  • Decreases in commodity quality common (size, color, texture, etc.)
  • Increased cost of commodity as a result of the above
two issues must be resolved in a biodiversity ipm discussion
Two Issues Must Be Resolved in a Biodiversity & IPM Discussion
  • A. Does the discussion concern the use of biodiversity in IPM or B. does it concern the use of IPM to maintain biodiversity?
    • If A, emphasis is biocontrol, if B, emphasis is pesticide reduction
  • A. Does the discussion concern managed biodiversity within crop fields or B. does it concern associated biodiversity in surrounding ecosystem?
    • If A, emphasis is on tillage & cropping systems, if B, emphasis is on landscape ecology.
4 applying ecological principles to managing pest populations
4. Applying Ecological Principles to Managing Pest Populations
  • IPM is an implementation vehicle for ecological knowledge.
  • Degree of implementation varies, recall the IPM continuum.
  • Many examples available, see reading for “A Whole Farm Approach to Managing Pests.” In particular, note the sidebars.
implementation of ecological principles in ipm
Implementation of Ecological Principles in IPM
  • Goal is preventative – keep pest populations from causing damage.
  • Requires increased knowledge, observation, management – Increased costs not immediately offset
  • Must return multiple benefits for adoption
  • Usually helps, seldom adequate in itself
two approaches to using ecological knowledge in ipm
Two Approaches to Using Ecological Knowledge in IPM
  • Ecologically-Based Pest Management (EBPM). Established in the NAS book of the same name.
  • Farmscaping – Mostly for biological control.
  • Widely used in organic production systems
ecologically based pest management
Ecologically—Based Pest Management
  • Basic Ideas:
    • Refocus pest management on maintaining ecological balance
    • Change management emphasis from individual species/components to processes, interactions between multiple species
  • 3 Basic Principles
    • Safety
    • Durability
    • Profitability
ebpm status
EBPM Status
  • Much research is funded annually
  • Profitability issues remain, EBPM systems often not as profitable or are too risky compared to existing IPM systems
  • EBPM generally relies on collective efforts (e.g. cooperatives, public oversight, etc.) which have yet to be accepted on a wide scale.
farmscaping
Farmscaping
  • The practice of designing and maintaining habitats that attract and support beneficial organisms, used to improve crop pollination and to control pest species.
  • Emphasis on landscape ecology for targeted objectives.
  • Many examples are available. Here are a few.
many similar themes along these lines
Many similar themes along these lines

Here’s a small sample. Follow the links to read a little about each one & get the idea.

  • Permaculture
  • Biointensive Pest Management
  • Regenerative Agriculture
  • Biodynamic Agriculture
notes on first hour exam
Notes on First Hour Exam
  • Scheduled for Monday, Feb. 23
  • Covers everything through this point
    • Chapters 1 – 7 in text
    • All assigned reading
    • Lecture notes
    • Be sure that you can do the exercises
  • Structure will be short answer (~2/3 of grade), longer answer (most of the rest). Might be some matching.
  • Note that the course has been re-organized since last time so old exams are helpful only for structure.
  • Exam starts promptly at 8:00 & papers are collected at 8:50.