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Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

Andrew G. Lynch, Ph.D.

Quest International

Global Citrus Applications Manager

andrew.lynch@questintl.com

Flavoring Beverages:Opportunities and Challenges

October

2005


What is food science
What is Food Science ?

Food Science deals with the physical, chemical and biological

properties of food. Food Scientists are concerned with:

Nutrition and Safety

Stability

Processing and Packaging

Cost and Quality

There are very few things as personal as food!


Flavoring beverages
flavoring beverages

  • background

  • opportunities

  • challenges

    • citrus flavor stability

    • orange juice processing

    • clouds

    • milk & coffee drinks


Quest for creative difference
Quest for creative difference

key facts

  • creative leader in the industry

  • corporate headquarters in Naarden, the Netherlands

  • two businesses: Flavours and Fragrances

  • total sales US$ 1.1 billion (2003)

  • creative and application centres and production facilities across Europe, the Americas and Asia Pacific

  • approx. 3,500 employees


Quest for creative difference1

60%flavours

40%fragrances

Quest for creative difference

sales 2003: US$ 1.1 billion


Flavoring beverages1
flavoring beverages

  • background

  • opportunities

  • challenges

    • citrus flavor stability

    • orange juice processing

    • clouds

    • milk & coffee drinks


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

Projected

CAGR (04-07)

Sales 2003 ($ billion)

22.5

38

20.0

34

17.5

30

15.0

26

12.5

24

10.0

20

7.5

16

5.0

12

2.5

8

0.0

4

- 2.5

0

- 5.0

Carbonates

Still

Drinks

Flavored

Alcoholic

Beverages

Flavored

Bottled

Water

Juices

& Nectars

RtD Tea,

& RtD

Coffee

Powder

Beverages

Sports &

Energy

Drinks

opportunities- North American beverage market


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

opportunities

market trends

  • diet (low carbohydrate, low calorie)

  • healthy fats (shift from trans and hydrogenated fats)

  • shift from fanciful to more exotic natural flavor

    e.g. Blood orange instead of orange

  • masking, suppressing & smoothing

  • innovative beverages


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

opportunities

non-alcoholic beverage segment new launch top flavors 2004

citrus flavors top the list, moving strawberry from #1 2003 to #3 in 2004. cranberry and chocolate are new to the list.

  • lemon

  • orange

  • strawberry

  • chocolate

  • apple

  • peach

  • mango

  • raspberry

  • vanilla

  • cranberry

Source: Global New Products Database (Mintel)


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

percent

opportunities

obesity

Obesity in the US is truly an epidemic. In the last 10 years, obesity rates have increased by more than 60% among adults.

Source: World Health Organization 2003


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

opportunities

masking and suppressing

  • bitterness

    (soy, grapefruit, protein drinks, coffee)

  • sourness

    (coffee, fermented and acid products)

  • saltiness

    (iso-tonic applications)

  • artificial sweetener

    (low cal products, lingering aftertaste, lack of body)


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

opportunities

enhancement

  • sweetness

    sugar flavors

  • aromatics beyond drinking

    odor release prior to consumption, instant teas & coffees

  • visual

  • taste modification


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

opportunities

innovation in beverages

  • dairy-based beverages

  • soy and juice combination drinks

  • meal replacement (juice/cereal/yogurt)


Flavoring beverages2
flavoring beverages

  • background

  • opportunities

  • challenges

    • citrus flavor stability

    • orange juice processing

    • clouds

    • milk & coffee drinks


Challenges
challenges

  • packaging

  • regulatory

  • consistent quality of natural ingredients

  • stability

    • processing

    • flavor stability

    • physico-chemical stability


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges

regulatory

  • GMO

  • natural & artificial

  • kosher

  • nature identical

  • global customers

  • globalization of flavors

  • Halal

  • TTB (formerly BATF)


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges

consistent quality of natural ingredients

  • natural products have natural variation

  • focused quality assurance program is critical

  • catastrophe in one part of the world?Example: 2004 Florida hurricanes significantly damage grapefruit crop


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges

processing

  • consistency in scale-up & transfer to other regions

  • processing impact on flavor/cloud

    • hot fill vs. cold fill

    • oxygen control


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges

flavor degeneration

  • fading

  • light induced degradation

  • acid hydrolysis

  • oxidation


Flavoring beverages3
flavoring beverages

  • background

  • opportunities

  • challenges

    • citrus flavor stability

    • orange juice processing

    • clouds

    • milk & coffee drinks


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges

citrus flavor stability

  • oxidation of terpenes

  • citral in aqueous low pH

  • acid catalyzed hydrations

Source: Rouseff, R. and Naim, M. 2000. Citrus Flavor Stability. In: Flavor Chemistry, ed. By Risch, S.J and Ho, C.T. American Chemical Society. Pages 101-121.


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges

citrus stability demonstration

soda base

  • pH 2.7

  • Brix 10.6

  • Carbonation 7 g/L

  • Good oxygen control

    storage conditions

  • 2 weeks at 4°C and 2 weeks at 45 °C


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges

typical off flavor formation in acidic aqueous solution


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges

off flavor formation in lemonade stored at high ambient temperatures


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

deteriorated

bitter

barny

moldy

Control 4°C

Control 45°C

metallic

oxidized

challenges

sensory analysis of aged lemonades

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges

lemon flavors

less off flavors

increased shelf life

citrus flavors that delivertraditional citrusfavorites withauthentic tasteprofiles


Flavoring beverages4
flavoring beverages

  • background

  • opportunities

  • challenges

    • citrus flavor stability

    • orange juice processing

    • clouds

    • milk & coffee drinks


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

Orange Juice Processing

  • Oranges are processed to make not from concentrate (NFC) or frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ)

  • Quality must be controlled (variety, growing conditions, etc)

  • Processing must be closely controlled to:

    • Deactivate enzymes

    • Limit oxygen levels

    • Destroy pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms

    • Minimize chemical and flavor changes

  • Correct packaging and storage conditions must be used to deliver safe and stable product to consumers.


Cross section of orange
Cross section of Orange

Juice vesicles

Flavedo

Albedo

Oil glands


Citrus materials basic processing
Citrus Materials: Basic Processing


Overview of production of orange juice concentrate

Peel Oil Recovery

Fruit Reception

Juice Extraction

Clarification

Pasteurization

Past/Evaporat

NFC

OJFC

Essence Recovery

Bulk Transportation

Reprocessing

Packaging

Distribution

Overview of Production of Orange Juice Concentrate

Main Products

By-Products

Peel Oil

Oil Phase

Water-Phase Aroma

Pulp, Limonene, Citrus Pulp Pellets


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

Why does juice need to be pasteurized ?

(1) Enzyme deactivation

  • Deactivation of pectin methyl esterase (PME)

    • PME cleaves methyl groups from pectin causing cloud loss and gelation

    • Calcium (from the juice) interacts with the demethylated pectin

    • Calcium pectate is insoluble and settles at the base of the container

  • For Florida-grown Valencia oranges, a heat load of 2-3 D values is generally sufficient for total enzyme destruction.

    • Typically pasteurization conditions employed are 95-98C for 10-30 secs.


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

Why does juice need to be pasteurized ?

(2) Ensure a microbiologically stable product

  • Main micro-organisms of interest in OJ are:

    • Acid-tolerant bacteria, yeasts and moulds

  • Acid-tolerant bacteria, e.g., Lactobacillus plantarum (grow best at 20-37C)

    • Spoilage characterized by diacetyl (buttery) off-notes and CO2

  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most common spoilage microorganism

    • Spoilage characterized by alcoholic fermentation, off-flavors and CO2

  • Spore-forming microorganisms (thermo-resistant acidophilic bacteria)

    • In 1992, Alicyclobacillus classified as new genus

    • Spoilage characterized by an off-flavor like “disinfectant” or guaicol


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

Thermal processing of OJ

  • Thermal resistance of microorganisms is traditionally expressed in terms

    of D values and Z values.

  • D value is the time at a specified temperature for the microbial population

    to decrease by 90% or one log cycle (also called the decimal reduction time)

  • Z value is the change in temperature needed to alter the D value by

    one log cycle

    • For example, if an organism has a z = 10C and a D80C = 1 min,

      then the D90C = 0.1 min and the D70C = 10 min.


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

Thermal processing of OJ

  • Pasteurization destroys most vegetative microorganisms but has little effect

    on bacterial spores (Most spores do not grow < pH 4.5).

    • long term survival of some pathogens in unpasteurized refrigerated juice is possible, therefore pasteurization is recommended

  • For microorganisms usually found in fruit juices, z values are typically 5-7.

    • Typical pasteurization temperatures are 75-95C for 15 to 30 secs

  • For a given increase in temperature, the rate of destruction of microorganisms and enzymes increases faster than the rate of destruction of sensory and nutrient components.

  • Summary……Deactivate enzymes, Ensure microbiological safety and minimize heat damage to nutrient and flavor components.


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

Theoretical thermal destruction curves of pectin methyl esterase, ascospores and vegetative cells of Saccharomyces cerevisae in orange juice (The Orange Book, Tetra Pak)


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges esterase, ascospores and vegetative cells of

packaging

  • trend towards less glass and increased use of polypropylene and PET (polyEthyleneTerephthalate)

  • scalping (loss of flavor into the packaging material)

  • permeation (movement of compounds through packaging materials)

  • migration (movement of components of the packaging material into food product)

Source: Risch, S. 2000. Flavor and packaging interactions. In: Flavor Chemistry, ed. By Risch, S.J and Ho, C.T. American Chemical Society. Pages 94-100.


Barrier properties

Off-flavor formation esterase, ascospores and vegetative cells of

Oxygen

Barrier properties

oxidation

Flavor

Flavor fading (scalping, permeation)

Permeation rate = Diffusion x Solubility

P = D x S


Vitamin c stability in different package types the orange book tetra pak
Vitamin C stability in different package types esterase, ascospores and vegetative cells of (The Orange Book, Tetra Pak)

AA + ½ O2 = DHA + H20

AA = ascorbic acid (vitamin C), DHA = dehydroascorbic acid


Properties of different polymers p d x s
Properties of different polymers: P = D x S esterase, ascospores and vegetative cells of

Polar polymers: PET, ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and polyamide (PA) show very slow diffusion coefficients with polar and non-polar aroma compounds.

Non-polar polymers: low density polyethylene (LDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP)

Limonene (non-polar aroma compound) has a high solubility in all the non-polar polymers and diffusion and consequent permeation rates differ by orders of magnitude in the different polymers – in decreasing order

LDPE > HDPE > PP

Ethyl butyrate (polar aroma compound) has low solubility in non-polar polymers. Losses of polar molecules are negligible with this type of barrier.


Terpenes the largest single chemical class within citrus volatiles
Terpenes: the largest single chemical class within citrus volatiles

*Three month study of orange juice in Tetra-Pak laminated containers showed:

Significant loss of limonene due to absorption/scalping by polymer barrier

a-terpineol (formed from degradation of limonene) increased more rapidly at higher storage temperatures

*Duerr et al., Alimenta1981, 20, 91-93


Volatile contribution to orange juice aroma
Volatile contribution to orange juice aroma volatiles

Contribution to typical aromasContribution to off-notes

Important Desirable Precursors Detrimental

ethyl butyratelinalool linalool a-terpineol

nerallimonene limonene carvone

geraniala-pinene valencene t-carveol

valencene4-vinyl guaiacol

acetaldehyde2,5-demethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H) furanoneoctanal

nonanal

a-sinensal

b-sinensal


Flavoring beverages5
flavoring volatilesbeverages

  • background

  • opportunities

  • challenges

    • citrus flavor stability

    • orange juice processing

    • clouds

    • milk & coffee drinks


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges volatiles

clouds

  • provides turbidity to a beverage; visual enhancement that gives finished beverage more value

  • many different types of cloud systems

  • weighting agents in clouds are regulated

  • sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB)

  • brominated vegetable oil (BVO)

  • ester gum

  • blended systems


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges volatiles

clouds

Neutral cloud

Goal: cloud with minimal taste impact

Most made from orange terpenes

Vegetable oil as an alternative

  • typically less stability

  • cleaner taste


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges volatiles

cloud ringing

emulsion in beverage product breaks down giving rise to creaming

perform tests to predict stability

  • make assumptions for predictions

  • microscope, particle size analyzer, shelf-life studies etc.


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges volatiles

cloud ringing

Stokes Law:

V = 2gr2 (po-p)

9no

v = velocity

r = droplet radius

g = gravity

po - p = difference in density

no = viscosity

v = negative creaming

v = 0 stable cloud

v = positive sedimentation


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

challenges volatiles

cloud ringing

ringing

stable

phase separation,

shrinkage of cloud layer


Flavoring beverages6
flavoring volatilesbeverages

  • background

  • opportunities

  • challenges

    • citrus flavor stability

    • orange juice processing

    • clouds

    • milk & coffee drinks


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

milk-coffee RTD volatileschallenges

matrix complexity

milk-coffee drinks contain coffee, milk, sweeteners, flavors, salts, hydrocolloids, proteins, emulsifiers amongst other components

  • complex mixture of ingredients

  • physico-chemical and flavor stability issues (processing and storage)


Milk coffee rtd matrix
Milk coffee RTD matrix volatiles

Milk coffee RTD matrix

Coffee

Specialty proteins

Alternative systems

Black Coffee

Fresh whole milk

Fresh skimmed milk

Skim/whole milk powders

Caseinate

Clouds

Whey proteins

Others

Others

Dairy/non-dairy fat with milk flavour

Effect of heating, antioxidants, pH, O2 content, stabilizing salts, homogenization etc.

Processing

Emulsifiers, Proteins Hydrocolloids

R&D

Application, Sensory & Flavour expertise

Beverages with improved stability & fresher coffee flavour


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

milk-coffee RTD volatilesopportunities

consumption

coffee consumption is growing

  • 2.5 billion liters of canned coffee are consumed annually in Japan alone!

    served hot during winter & cold in summer

  • beverage manufacturers are adopting coffee house trends into RTD’s


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

milk-coffee RTD volatileschallenges

flavor complexity

  • coffee contains over 830 volatile components!

  • some of the key flavor components responsible for freshroast coffee character are:

    • 2-furfurylthiol

  • coffee aroma and taste is dependent on the type of coffee used

    • species: Arabica or Robusta

    • origin

    • degree of roasting


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

milk-coffee RTD volatileschallenges

flavor complexity

at temperatures > 60°C, acidity increases, sourness increases and volatiles are lost resulting in an unpleasant drinking experience

milk is added to coffee for:

  • appearance

  • taste

  • mouthfeel



Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

milk-coffee RTD volatileschallenges

flavor complexity

  • coffee flavors are needed to compensate for the damage to the coffee volatiles during the extraction and beverage processing stages

    • fruity (eg. acetaldehyde)

    • phenolic (eg. guaiacol)

    • earthy (eg. 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine)

    • roast (eg. 2-furfurylthiol)

    • sweet (eg. methylpropanal)

  • opportunities for flavored coffees include;

    • vanilla

    • Irish Cream

    • chocolate and caramel

    • macadamia Nut and Hazelnut

  • amaretto and almond

  • coconut

  • fruit flavors eg. orange & raspberry


The composition of milk

CONSTITUENT volatiles

RANGE %

MEAN VALUE %

Water

85.5 – 89.5

87.0

Total solids

10.5 – 14.5

13.0

Fat

2.5 – 6.0

4.0

Protein

2.9 – 5.0

3.4

Lactose

3.6 – 5.5

4.8

Minerals

0.6 – 0.9

0.8

The composition of milk


Main fatty acids of milk fat

CONSTITUENT volatiles

% OF TOTAL FATTY

ACID CONTENT

MELTING

POINT °C

Butyric

3.0 – 4.5

–7.9

85.5 – 89.5

Caproic

1.3 – 2.2

–1.5

Caprylic

0.8 – 2.5

16.5

Capric

1.8 – 3.8

31.4

Lauric

2.0 – 5.0

43.6

Myristic

7.0 – 11.0

53.8

Palmitic

25.0 – 29.0

62.6

Stearic

7.0 – 13.0

69.3

Oleic

30.0 – 40.0

14.0

Linoleic

2.9 – 3.1

–5.0

Main fatty acids of milk fat


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

COMPONENT volatiles

MICELLAR PHASE

(g/l)

SERUM PHASE

(g/l)

as1-Casein

10.9

0.7

85.5 – 89.5

as2-Casein

3.0

0.1

b-Casein

9.0

1.3

k-Casein

2.9

0.5

Calcium

0.8

0.4

Phosphate

0.9

1.1

Citrate

0.1

1.8

Distribution of the major constituents of the casein micellebetween the serum and micellar phases of bovine milk at pH 6.7 at 20°C


Some physico chemical characteristics of casein micelles

CHARACTERISTIC volatiles

AVERAGE VALUE

Diameter

130-160 nm

Surface area

8.0 x 10-6 cm2

Volume

2.1 x 10-5 cm3

Mass

2.2 x 10-15 g

Density (hydrated)

1.0632 g/cm3

Water content (hydrated)

63%

Hydration

3.7 g H2O/g protein

Voluminosity

4.4 cm3/g

Zeta potential (at 25°C)

–18.7 ± 0.3 mV

Particle weight (hydrated)

1.3 x 109 Da

Particle weight (dehydrated)

5 x 108 Da

No. of monomers (av MW 25,000)

5 x 103

Some physico-chemical characteristics of casein micelles


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges
Schematic representation of a sub-micelle (A) and a casein micelle (B) composed of sub-micelles (from Schmidt, 1982)


Possible reactions of side chain residues of proteins at high temperatures 1

-CH micelle (B) composed of sub-micelles (from Schmidt, 1982)2COOH + NH3

Aspartic acid

-(CH2)2-COOH + NH

Glutamic acid

-CH2-OH + HPO42-

Serine

=CH2 + HPO42-

Dehydroalanine

-CH2-S- + H2O

R1/R2-CH2-S-

R3-CH2-S-S-CH2-R1/R2

Possible reactions of side-chain residuesof proteins at high temperatures – 1

1.

-CH2-CONH2 + H2O

Asparagine

2.

-(CH2)2-CONH2 + H2O

Glutamine

3.

-CH2-O-PO32- + H2O

Phosphoserine

4.

-CH2-O-PO32-

Phosphoserine

5.

-CH2-SH + OH-

Cysteine

6.

R1-CH2-S-S-CH2-R2

R3-CH2-S-


Possible reactions of side chain residues of proteins at high temperatures 2

-CH micelle (B) composed of sub-micelles (from Schmidt, 1982)2-S-S-CH2

Cystine

=CH2 + HS-

Dehydroalanine

-CH2-S-CH2

Lanthionine

-(CH2)4- +NH-CH2- + H2O

Lysinoalanine

-(CH2)4-NH-CO-CH2 +

H2O + e-N-(B-aspartyl)lysine

-(CH2)4-NH-CO-(CH2)2- +

H2O + e-N-(g-glutamtyl)lysine

Possible reactions of side-chain residuesof proteins at high temperatures – 2

7.

-CH-S- + -S-CH2-

Cysteine

8.

-CH2-S-

Cysteine

9.

=CH2 + HS-CH2-

10.

-(CH2)4-NH3+ + H2C + OH-

Lysine

11.

-(CH2)4-NH3+ + -O2C-CH2

Lysine Aspartic acid

12.

-(CH2)4-NH3+ + -O2C-(CH2)2-

Lysine Glutamic acid


Browning maillard reactions in milk
Browning (Maillard) reactions in milk micelle (B) composed of sub-micelles (from Schmidt, 1982)

  • in milk the main Maillard reactants are lactose and lysine

  • the rate of Maillard reaction in milk is dependent on pH, time, temperature and water activity

  • some of the compounds identified from ‘dry’ extracts of milk systsems incubated at pH 6 or 7 and water activity 0.75 to 0.80 included: 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural, furfuryl alcohol, furfural, maltol, acetol, 2-oxo-proponal, acetaldehyde, and formic, acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids


Heat stability versus ph curves for normal skim milk heated at 140 c
Heat stability versus pH curves micelle (B) composed of sub-micelles (from Schmidt, 1982)for normal skim milk heated at 140°C

HEAT COAGULATION TIME (HCT) (min.)

50

40

maximum

30

milk B

milk A

20

minimum

10

0

6.2

6.4

6.6

6.8

7

7.2

pH


Changes which can occur to milk constituents on heating 1
Changes which can occur to milk constituents on heating – 1

  • calcium and phosphate are converted from soluble to colloidal state

  • formic acid and lactulose are formed from lactose at temperatures > 100°C

  • hydrolysis of the phosphoserine residues at high temperatures

  • the titratable acidity of the milk increases and pH decreases

  • solubility of the whey proteins decreases significantly at temperatures > 75°C


Changes which can occur to milk constituents on heating 2
Changes which can occur to milk constituents on heating – 2

  • enzymes are inactivated by heating at > 50°C, but varies with enzyme

  • there is a decrease in redox potential probably due to the formation of free sulphydryl groups and hydrogen sulphide formation at temperatures > 60°C

  • Maillard reactions increase as temperature of heating increases

  • casein micelles may start to aggregate above 110°C

  • lactones and methyl ketones are formed from the fat


Alkaline urea page of solutions of sodium caseinate heated at different ph values and temperatures

1 2

2

3

4

5

6

7

Alkaline urea-PAGE of solutions of sodium caseinate heated at different pH values and temperatures.

as1-casein

as2-caseins

Alkaline urea-PAGE of

unheated sodium

caseinate (1); sodium

caseinate, pH 7, heated

at 110°C (2), 120°C (4),

of 130°C (6) for 5 min.

and sodium caseinate,

pH 10.0, heated at

110°C (3), 120°C (5)

or 130°C (7) for 5 min.

Lynch, Andrew, Ph.D thesis,

NUI, Cork, Ireland, 1995.

b-casein

k-casein

g-casein


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

milk-coffee RTD 2challenges

preparation of milk-coffee beverages

Coffee-milk mixtures usually have near neutral pH values and careful processing is required to ensure a stable product with good organoleptic properties

  • controlled temperature & duration of heating during coffee extraction

  • homogenization is required if milk fat or other fat is used

  • sufficient amount of surface active material must be present

  • check coffee-milk/ingredient and flavor compatibility

  • pH of the mixture needs careful control

  • sterilization/UHT processing is required for long shelf-life products


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

milk-coffee RTD 2challenges

why homogenize?

under homogenization

optimum homogenization


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

milk-coffee RTD 2challenges

emulsion stability

OIL

Creaming

Coalescence

separation

Aggregation

creaming

Reversible

Irreversible

STABLE

UNSTABLE


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

close approach of 2

droplets

steric stabilization

coalescence

interfacial film

rupture

interfacial rheology

no interfacial film rupture

flocculation

milk-coffee RTD challenges

droplet stabilitly


Emulsifiers
Emulsifiers 2

  • Surface active molecules

  • Contain water-loving hydrophilic part and oil-loving lipophilic part

  • Reduce surface tension

  • Orientate at oil / water or air / water interface

  • Interact with other ingredients (e.g. protein, starch)


Emulsifiers chemical characteristics
Emulsifiers : Chemical Characteristics 2

  • Iodine value unsaturated fatty acids

    • gram iodine absorbed per 100 g emulsifier

  • Peroxidasevalue oxidation level

    • meq. oxygen bound as peroxide per kg emulsifier

  • Acid value free fatty acids

    • mg KOH needed to neutralise 1 g emulsifier

  • Saponificationvalue free + bound fatty acids

    • mg KOH needed to saponify 1 g emulsifier




Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

CO 2

Fatty acid

Monoglyceride : Saturated

E

-o-

-OH

-OH

GMP (glyceromonopalmitate)


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

CH3 2

|

CH3 CHO

| |

CHO--CO

|

COO (Na )

CO

-

+

Fatty acid

Sodium stearoyl-2-Lactylate


Flavoring beverages opportunities and challenges

milk-coffee RTD 2challenges

effect of homogenization pressure on particle size distribution

volume


Flavoring beverages7
flavoring 2beverages

  • background

  • opportunities

  • challenges

    • citrus flavor stability

    • orange juice processing

    • clouds

    • milk & coffee drinks


A g lynch

A.G. Lynch 2

Flavoring Beverages:Opportunities and Challenges