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F-111 EBU TF30 RAM Program. John Hall (Quality Manager) Greg Mason (Engineering Manager). Presentation Outline. F-111 EBU Overview What is a RAM Program What is a Condition Monitoring Philosophy What Condition Monitoring Techniques are used Performance Indicators Reliability / Safety

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f 111 ebu tf30 ram program

F-111 EBUTF30 RAM Program

John Hall (Quality Manager)

Greg Mason (Engineering Manager)

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • F-111 EBU Overview
  • What is a RAM Program
  • What is a Condition Monitoring Philosophy
  • What Condition Monitoring Techniques are used
  • Performance Indicators
    • Reliability / Safety
    • Availability / Health
    • Maintainability / Cost Effectiveness
  • Applicability to other industries
  • Nine steps
f 111 ebu overview
F-111 EBU Overview
  • F-111 EBU supports the Pratt & Whitney TF30 gas turbine fleet that powers the RAAF F-111.
  • Support includes Fleet planning, Engineering, Deeper Maintenance, and Spares (and RI) inventory management
  • Engine facts
    • 100 plus engines managed (65 in rotable fleet)
    • Designed in the 1960s (first Turbo Fan engine built)
    • Approx $2M each ($4M in piece parts)
    • Four variants supported (will be one in two years)
    • Only TF30 operator (USN retired TF30 powered F14s in 2005)
    • Oldest fleet (time since new ~ increased risk)
engine picture now removed
Engine picture (now removed)
  • 16 stages of compression; overall compression ratio 19:1
  • Length 19 feet, diameter 39 inches, weight 4 160 lbs, max thrust 21 000 lbs,
  • Max temp ~ 2200 ºF, Max pressure ~ 250 psia,
  • Airflow 240 lb / sec (by pass ratio 1:1), max fuel flow 55 000 lb / hr (15 lb / sec or 9 L / sec)
  • Twin spools (9600 rpm and 14400 rpm - single fan blade exerts a centrifugal force of ~ 30 000lb)
  • Eight combustion cans (arranged in an annulus), four fuel nozzles per can (primary and secondary flow for each)
  • Four stages of turbine
  • Variable, five zone, Afterburner
tf30 ram program
TF30 RAM Program

Why a RAM program?

  • To continually improve Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (quality, timeliness and cost)

What is a RAM program?

  • Essentially a management philosophy based on Condition Monitored Maintenance (CMM) principles ie use knowledge of individual equipment condition (engine in our case) to make decisions on each piece of equipment and the fleet at large.

How was the RAM program introduced?

  • In 1990 a group of people who had Condition Monitoring experience and a strong desire to provide cost effective TF30 maintenance, became aware of the current engine failure and Test Cell rejection rates and decided to act.
tf30 ram program6
TF30 RAM Program
  • Unscheduled removal rates too high (30% of all work performed)
  • Review of engine failure modes and reasons for engine rejection at Test Cell. Identified as:
    • Main line bearing failures / oil system leaks
    • High engine vibration levels
    • Low Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) margin
    • Engine accessory failures
  • Repeated maintenance for same problem (addressing symptoms not cause),
  • Inefficient maintenance strategies when performing major maintenance (fixed interval, one size fits all)
  • Need recognised by middle managers and the RAAF TF30 RAM program was born…..followed by 3 years of persistence, stealth and self promotion in order to prove the concept.
  • A few early successes helped and the RAM program was formalised in 1993 (senior management commitment). From that time to this, it has officially had staff, equipment, knowledge and a goal.
  • More on RAM program implementation later in the presentation
condition monitoring philosophy
Condition Monitoring - Philosophy

An effective RAM / CM program

  • must befocused and structured

Five CM Phases

  • Detection, taking readings and obtaining raw CM data
  • Diagnosis, analysing this data to determine failure mode(s) in play
  • Prognosis, decide on course of action based on failure criticality (time remaining until engine removal / repair)
  • Prescription, decide what scope of maintenance is reqd and perform it
  • Post Mortem, gaining feedback during repair and using it to improve CAC, build techniques, facilities, CM techniques!
condition monitoring techniques
Condition Monitoring Techniques

Technique selection

  • Chosen based on ability tomonitor ‘important’ failure modes
  • Not chosen based on - the way we always do it, equipment offered by ‘salesman’, cheapest or easiest

Five Techniques

  • Spectrometric Oil Analysis
  • Wear Debris Analysis
  • Vibration Analysis
  • Gas Path Performance Analysis
  • Remote Visual Inspections
condition monitoring techniques9
Condition Monitoring Techniques
  • Spectrometric Oil Analysis (approx. 20 monitored faults)
    • Interval every three flights and every flight in warning (same day sample, burn and analysis, rapid failures ie <10 enhrs)
    • Automated trending (not just data collection)
    • Included Oil Additions and a smoothing algorithm
    • Trend corrected concentration and wear rate (not uncorrected concentration)
    • Automated predictions (time to break warning / alarm levels including colour coding and messages)
    • Not used in isolation (WDA, Maintenance history, modification status etc)
condition monitoring techniques10
Condition Monitoring Techniques
  • Spectrometric Oil Analysis
condition monitoring techniques11
Condition Monitoring Techniques
  • Spectrometric Oil Analysis
condition monitoring techniques12
Condition Monitoring Techniques
  • Wear Debris Analysis (faults as per SOA, provides confirmation)
    • Interval is pre/post maintenance, as indicated by SOAP and ΔP
    • From main engine filter (no mag plugs, particles often non magnetic)
    • Use 15 micron Pall ‘Dirt Alert’ filter (high efficiency debris recovery)
    • Also use 3 micron ‘Dirt Alert’ for ‘Green Run’ post major maintenance
    • Optical microscope with digital camera (initial analysis)
    • SEM EDX if worthy of further examination using on base NDTSL Materials Officers
    • Stored electronically for comparison with metal map (OEM and RAAF developed)
condition monitoring techniques13
Condition Monitoring Techniques
  • Vibration Analysis (approx 20 faults, balance, alignment, straightness, concentricity, looseness, rubs etc)
    • Interval is pre/post maintenance and when removed serviceable (slowfailures ie >200 enhrs)
    • Transducers (accelerometers) on Fan Inlet Case, Diffuser and Turbine
    • Data acquired by predominately using RAAF / DSTO developed Engine Vibration Analysis System (EVAS)
    • Use Run up / down plots (amplitude & phase) and FFT
    • Trending / fault isolation using various DSTO software and Vibralog / Entek software
    • Current Development of IEVAS (portable version of EVAS)
condition monitoring techniques14
Condition Monitoring Techniques
  • Vibration Analysis
  • Single channel system replaced with PC based 8 channel system
  • Steady state acquisition and one slow run-up / run-down rather than 6 to complete vibration survey
  • Takes 2 minutes instead of 12, providing approx $200k fuel savings per year
  • Provides both Transient and Steady State Peak vibration data
  • Single page report generated for serviceability
condition monitoring techniques15
Condition Monitoring Techniques
  • Gas Path Performance Analysis (approx 15 faults monitored)
    • Interval is pre/post maintenance and when removed serviceable (slowfailures ie >200 enhrs)
    • Normal parameters trended (N1, N2, Tt2, Tt4, Tt5, Tt7, Wf, thrust, Pt2, Ps3, Ps4, Pt7m)
    • Also looking at Tt3, Ps3f.
    • Acquired using PC based Engine Data Acquisition System (EDAS developed by DSTO, supported and maintained by Raytheon)
    • Use OEM EPR Plots, OEM influence coefficients, plus various cross plots (DSTO)
    • Trending using EBU developed Excel program (against same engine, average of the serviceable band or average engine)
    • Fault isolation aided by various DSTO developed software
    • Approx last 10 years of data used to trend
    • Two Compressor wash types performed (water and detergent) at specified intervals to recover performance, help with corrosion.
condition monitoring techniques16
Condition Monitoring Techniques
  • Remote Visual Inspection / Videoscopes (monitors corrosion, erosion, cracking, oil leaks, P/N and build checks)
    • Interval is pre and post maintenance, special servicings, as reqd (slow failures ie >200 enhrs)
    • Access to Fan, majority of LPC, front/rear of HPC, majority of combustion area, front of HPT and rear stages of LPT (access often limited by imagination)
    • Use latest generation 4, 6 and 8 mm videoscopes
    • Features include stereoscopic measurement, working channel, digital image / video capture and comparison, improved optics / light source / portability
    • Under investigation in-situ blending and NDT
engine inductions
Engine Inductions
  • To provide an insight into how this CMM philosophy is used on the TF30 a number of initiatives will be discussed. The first is engine inductions.
  • Every engine removed for deeper maintenance is prepared for induction into work. This involves:
    • data collection eg test cell run and existing CM data (five techniques), configuration data (ECs incorporated) and lifing data (LCF and other lifed components).
    • Analysis of above data
  • The goal is to tailor the maintenance to be performed so that:
    • minimum necessary / optimal work is carried out,
    • maximum engine life is produced,
    • highest probability of successful engine test post maintenance
    • reduced support costs
  • This work scope is documented in a ‘work requirement’ and is conveyed to maintenance supervisors at an induction meeting (chaired by RAM staff). NB: Scheduled maintenance such as OH and HSI have a fairly standard ‘work requirement’.
engine failure modes
Engine Failure Modes
  • The second initiative is to use the Condition Monitoring and reliability data to target Engineering Changes / Build techniques that will best help improve TF30 RAM outcomes.
  • Essentially we are doing the post mortem phase in a systematic manner ie various Tech info / reports raised during engine repair are reviewed in an attempt to not just repair the engine but to eliminate that failure mode throughout the whole fleet. Sounds simple, but isn’t!
  • Challenges are many, some are:
    • too busy / not enough staff, no dedicated RAM focus on long term opportunities (bush fires are raging, no time available to build a fire engine)
    • concentrate on treating symptoms, forget to remove the cause
    • time, effort, cost to develop and implement ECs is often daunting
    • Not enough ECs introduced to RAAF fleet
    • Unnecessary ECs introduced to RAAF fleet (fixed a problem we didn’t have)
    • management administrata (distracted from the goal of improved RAM outcomes)
engine failure modes19
Engine Failure Modes
  • Some TF30 examples are:
    • ECs, 25 relevant mods introduced during current OH series (23 worked; only 4 in 7 years during late 80s - mid 90s, more to come!)
    • Build Improvements, numerous processes to improve engine ‘condition’ eg 5 bearing housing lug clearance software
    • Facilities, numerous but some are:
      • upgrade bearing cleaning, inspection, repair facilities
      • upgrade plasma spray room, welding workshop
      • dehumidified engine storage
    • Equipment, continual but some are:
      • purchase of DCCMM
      • purchase of air bed run out table
      • digital blade moment weighing / automated patternising
      • bearing flushness indicating system
    • Old engine but new processes / equipment / facilities
maintenance interval extensions
Maintenance Interval Extensions
  • Maintenance Interval Extension (Scheduled via FLP and via MIER)
    • In 1990, scheduled intervals were 750 / 1500 enhr for HSI and OH. Pre pacer were 550 / 1100.
    • We are currently exploring a 1000 / 2000 enhr schedule via a Fleet Leader Program that is validated by previous P&W ASMET testing for the USAF and USN.
    • Initial goal was 1200 / 2400 but this is looking unachievable without JP8+100 and TBC NGVs. Latest Mission Profile Analysis also shows increased AB lights.
    • Additionally, all engines approaching scheduled maintenance are reviewed for extension. Due to variability of build, use & repair history it is inevitable that many engines can safely operate beyond scheduled maintenance. Some can not! This process relies heavily on CM, build / lifing data etc
    • RAAF TF30 DM currently produces 7200 enhr per annum using 100+ staff and associated spares; MIER produces 3000 additional enhr with <5 staff and limited spares - saves money, safety not compromised! Was 15 OH / yr in early 80s, now 7.
performance indicators 1990 vs 2005
Performance Indicators (1990 VS 2005)
  • Reliability / Safety
  • Availability / Health
  • Maintainability / Cost Effectiveness
performance indicators 1990 vs 200522
Performance Indicators (1990 VS 2005)
  • Reliability & Safety
    • In Flight Shut Down (IFSD) rate
      • In early 1990s was 0.6 / 1000 enhrs or 4.5 per annum
      • 2005 was 0.07 / 1000 enhrs or < 1 per annum or 84% reduction c/w early 1990s
      • Compares favourably with F404 fitted to RAAF F/A18 which has an IFSD rate of 0.28 / 1000 enhrs
      • Oct 96-Jan 01 achieved 4.5 years with no IFSD
      • Goal - continually decrease IFSD rate; 0.02 achievable for TF30 within 5 years (97% reduction c/w early 1990s
performance indicators 1990 vs 200523
Performance Indicators (1990 VS 2005)
  • Reliability / Safety
    • Unscheduled Engine Removal Rate (UERR)
      • In early 1990s was 7 / 1000 enhrs or 55 per annum
      • 2005 was 3 / 1000 enhrs or 21 per annum or 65% reduction c/w early 1990s
      • Most removals FOD (6) and engine accessories (5).
      • Without FOD UERR was 6 / 1000 enhrs in 1990 and 2.1 / 1000 enhrs in 2005 or a 70% reduction c/ w 1990.
      • Goal - continually decrease UERR rate; focus on FOD control initiatives and accessory reliability
performance indicators 1990 vs 200524
Performance Indicators (1990 VS 2005)
  • Reliability / Safety
    • Average Time On Wing (ATOW) NB: engines removed serv for AF servicings not counted
      • was 160 enhrs (or 1 year installed), now 300 (2 years installed)
      • c/w RAAF F/A 18 F404, currently 400* enhrs (2.3 years installed)

* was 300 three years ago

performance indicators 1990 vs 200525
Performance Indicators (1990 VS 2005)
  • Reliability / Safety
    • Major Repair Arising Rate (MRAR)
      • In early 1990s was 1.2 / 1000 enhrs or 9 per annum
      • 2005 was 0.4 / 1000 enhrs or 3 per annum or 66% reduction c/w early 1990s
      • Approximately half of the Major Repairs have been due to FOD
      • With FOD removed 0.9 /1000 enhrs (1990) and 0.2 / 1000 enhrs (2005) or 78% reduction c/w 1990s
      • Goal - continually decrease MRAR rate; focus on FOD control initiatives…….FOD very frustrating
performance indicators 1990 vs 200526
Performance Indicators (1990 VS 2005)
  • Availability / Health

Good in 1990, slightly better in 2005 - no ‘bare firewalls’

    • Engines serviceable above fit
      • average of 8 early 1990s when fleet was 69 engines and 18 aircraft with engines fitted (EAR 3.6 : 1)
      • average of 7.5 in 2005 when fleet was 65 engines and 22 aircraft with engines fitted (EAR 3:1)
    • Fleet Health (total engine hours available to be used until next scheduled maintenance; provides a contingency buffer and insight into future DM workload requirements)
      • average of 21 000 enhrs (stable) early 1990s
      • average of 24 000 enhrs (increasing) in 2005
performance indicators 1990 vs 200527
Performance Indicators (1990 VS 2005)
  • Maintainability / Cost effectiveness
    • Maintenance cost (labour, spares, etc) was $31M per annum and increasing in 1991 dollars (or $46 M in 2005 dollars)
    • Maintenance cost was <$20M in 2005 or 56% reduction c/w 1991


    • $3.5K per ENHR flown in 1991 ($5.1K / ENHR in 2005 dollars)
    • $2.5K per ENHR flown in 2005 or $1.9K per ENHR made in 2005
    • Maintenance costs should decrease further as RAAF F111 approaches PWD (currently 2010-2012)
    • Interesting trend - in 1990 RAAF used 12 LSA (Engineering, Fleet Planning, Logistic ie TSA / RIM / SIM) and 250+ DM staff; in 2005 we used 40 LSA and 105 DM staff ie we have found it to be extremely cost effective to invest ‘up front’ in planning / analysis and save ‘down track’ in DM costs (labour and spares)
applicability to other industries
Applicability to other industries

RAM applicable to high cost and / or critical process industries (eg civil aviation, mining, rail, paper, power, racing, manufacturing etc)

Must be in a position to implement (organisationally, culturally, disciplined approach, technically, long term view and commitment)

ram program implementation
RAM Program Implementation

1. Justify (Commitment)

2. Baseline (KPIs)

3. Target (Failure modes that hurt most)

4. Select (Appropriate CM techniques)

5. Resource (Team of people, equipment)

6. Train (CM techniques and CMM philosophy)

7. Implement (hard work, discipline, attention to detail)

8. Monitor (review KPI progress / failure modes)

9. Adjust (fix the bits of the program that aren’t working)

Beware of pitfalls, use a facilitator if possible