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Expository Text Structures. Narrative vs. Expository. “Begin at the beginning,’ the king said gravely,’ and go till you come to the end; then stop.’” Lewis Carroll Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865), p. 12. Table of Contents Chapters Headings Graphics Index. Information Age

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narrative vs expository
Narrative vs. Expository

“Begin at the beginning,’ the king said gravely,’ and go till you come to the end; then stop.’”

Lewis CarrollAlice’s Adventures in Wonderland(1865), p. 12

Table of ContentsChaptersHeadingsGraphicsIndex

increased interest in non fiction
Information Age

70 – 80% of standardized reading test content

22 Research Studies

Preferred by boys

Preferred by remedial students

Students response “primarily to learn new things”

Increased interest in non-fiction

Moss, Barbara, Teaching expository text structures. The Reading Teacher. May 2004. p 710

Carter, Betty and Richard Abrahamson, Nonfiction for Young Adults: From Delight to Wisdom. 1990

enumerative listings
Enumerative Listings

the following also

then in addition

another furthermore

finally likewise

besides as well as

several some

many a few


first next

second until

third while

last soon

then after

at that time now

during immediately


that s a fact
That’s a Fact

Give Me 5

Cover – title, written and illustrated by

CopyrightThumb PointerTall manRing manPinky

starving in a land of plenty

Pvt. George Shannon

Lost for two weeks

Tried to catch up with keelboat

Ran out of bullets

Ate grapes

Shot rabbit

Sat on shore

Keelboat arrived

Starving in a Land of Plenty











at that time






comparison contrast

however even though

but on the contrary

yet otherwise

despite in comparison

still on the other hand

cause and effect
Cause and Effect

for this reason thus

in order to as a result

because consequently

so that on account of

therefore accordingly

problem and solution
 Problem and Solution

problemsolutionbecausecausesinceas a resultso that

primary sovrces
  • Authentic documents and artifacts
  • Primary goal is for students to feel as if they are back in time themselves
  • Look for clues – annotate the text
  • Illustrate a quote

Primary Sources Instructor, Monica Edinger, November/December 2001

November 06, 1804William Clark

last night late we wer awoke by the Sergeant of the Guard to See a Northern light, which was light, (but) not red, and appeared to Darken and Some times nearly obscured, and open, ... many times appeared in light Streeks, and at other times a great Space light & containing floating collomns which appeared to approach each other & retreat leaveing the lighter space at no time of the Same appearance

Capitals are used (or not) at random

They doubled letters (or didn’t double them) differently than we do

Punctuation is used or not at irregular times

We need to use context clues because words may have different meanings

An ‘e’ was either added or left off of the end of the word


“The Musquetoes uncommonly troublesome.”

July 02, 1805Meriwether Lewis

“at day light this morning we we[re] awoke by the discharge of the fire arm[s] of all our party & a Selute, Shouts and a Song”

December 25, 1805William Clark


... frost last night, ... we Saw the Tracks of white bear which was verry large,

October 07, 1804 William Clark

These are the best looking Indians I have ever seen. ... They are the most cleanly Indians I have ever seen on the voyage; as well as the most friendly and industrious.

October 11, 1804 Patrick Gass


"about 12 oClock we arived in Site of St Louis fired three Rounds as we approached the Town and landed [opposite] the center of the Town, the people gathred on the Shore and [gave] three cheers. we . . . [are] much rejoiced that we have the Expedition Completed and now we look for boarding in Town and wait for our Settlement and then we entend to return to our native homes to See our parents once more as we have been so long from them."

John Ordway, September 23, 1806

Statue in St. Louis commemorating Lewis, Clark, Sacagawea, and Seaman