DEINDIVIDUATION..research. . BATs : Outline and evaluate the deindivuation theory of aggression. All: Outline research of deindivuation Most: Explain the research in relation to aggression.
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Public self awareness
Private self awareness
Own thoughts and feelings
Can be reduced by becoming so involved in an activity we forget ourselves.
So...loss of private awareness leads to a loss of internal standards & over reliance on environmental cues.
So...loss of public awareness leads to a loss of public standards of behaviour and lowers our inhibitions.
Fans become so involved in game that they are no longer self aware
A reliance upon others in environment to set the standards of how to act.
Group presence and size
Decreased self awareness
Diffusion of responsibility
Increased responsivity to situational cues (private self awareness)
Loss of normal inhibitions (public self awarenss)
Children more likely to steal in groups when they were anonymous
High ecological validity
Operationalisation of aggression
Unethical – informed consent/protection from harm.
Ku Klux Klan effect – suggested that there was an association with the KKK, this may have affected the amount of shocks given.
Sample was just women – may be different for men.
Graph illustrating results from the costume experiment.
Low ecological Validity.
Evidence against deindividuation theory of aggression.
What would you do if you could remain anonymous?
Other theories Instinct theory, Biological theories & drive theories.
Recent analysis Norm based analysis of collective behaviour is supported
Does not always lead to aggression Can result in pro social beahviour too, think natural disasters, anti social situations where individuals have not acted with indifference or no action!!!!
Analysis of football supporters behaviour Ingham (1978) football supporters follow ritualised rules of behaviour in the terraces, acts of violence are not always the result of mob rule.
Irwin & Cressey (1962)
Follow norms from
within their culture
i.e. Not betraying one another.
They refer to fellow inmates
primary reference group.
2. Convict Subculture.
Inmates who have been raised in the prison system
They seek power & information over the system.
The primary reference group is fellow convicts.
These prisoners are
deprivation prior to imprisonment & these values
are imported from outside
(Blomberg & Lucken,2000)
One time offenders, characterised as straights by Irwin & Cressey (1962)
Not part of criminal subculture, they usually reject other subcultures &
Identify with prison guards and staff. They do not tend to be aggressive.
BATs: Outline and evaluate the deindivuation theory of aggression.
All: Outline research of deindivuation (E)
Most: Explain the research in relation to aggression.(C)
Some: Critically evaluate the research into deindividuation in relation to AID and and apply to a context. (A)
Synoptic: Gender, Methods, Ethics, Nature nurture, Free Will etc....
The answer in short is no………
The popcorn Model (Folger & Skarlicki,1995)
Individual is like first
piece of corn to pop
when the pan is hot.
Suggests that the environment ‘heats’ prisoners up
So we need to sort out prison = reduction in violence.
Constant levels of prisoner stress: Does not explain why riots sometimes explode out of nowhere, more recent research has focused upon relative rather than absolute deprivation(Colvin,1992)
Research support: Richards (2007) inmate v inmate and inmate v staff assaults with 900 US prisons had higher than average rates whist some were lower suggest individual characteristics of prison play a part.
Conflicting findings on crowding in prisons empirical findings do not seem to support the hypothesis.
Unexplained motives Light (1991) developed a set of categories to describe the different settings in which prisoners assault prison officers. 1.unexplained- over 25% had no motive.
Female aggression in prisons. Females offenders develop strong bonds with other members of their social groups rather than identify with prison subculture, therefore may be different to men.