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Chapter 3. CREATIVE DECISION MAKING AND RESEARCH. Describe the role of research in business decision making. Present a creative and analytical decision-making process. Discuss the importance of writing actionable research questions. Suggest techniques for being more creative.

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creative decision making and research

Chapter 3

CREATIVE DECISION MAKING AND RESEARCH

  • Describe the role of research in business decision making.
  • Present a creative and analytical decision-making process.
  • Discuss the importance of writing actionable research questions.
  • Suggest techniques for being more creative.
  • Understand concepts related to evaluating alternatives and choice.
research and decision making go together
Research and Decision-Making Go Together
  • C-A-B PROCESS
    • Creative-Analytical-Business Decision-MakingProcess

Research Questions

Creativity

Research

Evaluation & Choice

Implementation

Feedback

how much research

Much Research

Little Research

Nature of Decision

How much research?
  • Routine decisions require little research.
  • Unfamiliar decisions with high risk require much research.
research has value two ways
Researchhas value two ways!
  • Provides a more informed answer to the current question.
  • Increases the knowledge of personnel so that more informed decisions can be made in general.
decision making process
DECISION MAKING PROCESS

Business decision-making = selecting

from among alternative courses of

action – each likely to have a

different outcome.

1. Opportunity = a situation where a

potentially advantageous outcome

is possible.

2. Crisis management = a decision-

making situation that occurs with

little notice and has great potential

for negative implications.

business decision making process
BUSINESS DECISION MAKING PROCESS
  • Decision maker identifies issues and/or problems.
  • Available information is screened.
  • Decision maker and researcher translate issues/problems into researchable questions.
  • Knowledge is acquired through research.
  • Decisions are made to reach a more desirable future situation.
barriers to effective problem identification and actionable research questions
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND ACTIONABLE RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
  • Incorrect Assumptions
  • Functional Fixedness
  • Expedience
  • Communication Difficulties
  • “The” Solution
  • Unclear Goals

Developing better vision.

functional fixedness
Functional Fixedness
  • Once one learns an effective rule or action, increased familiarity with the process makes it difficult to see other ways of doing the same thing, even if they are simpler and better. That is, it creates tunnel vision.
beating functional fixedness
BEATING FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS
  • Interrogatories.
      • What ___?
      • Why ___?
      • When___?
      • Where ___?
      • Who ___?
      • How ___?
  • Invite Multiple Solutions.
    • Identify WAYS not a WAY!

?

effective communications
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS
  • . . . are essential because multiple people are usually involved in the decision making process. Effective communications make effective research questions more likely!
inviting multiple solutions
INVITING MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS
  • Too often we tend to work on the most obvious question, or the first one posed.
  • Considering a larger number of potential questions and solutions leads to better research, better answers, and improved decision making.
issues or symptoms
ISSUES OR SYMPTOMS?
  • Issues are the things that if altered will close the gap between the actual and the desired situation.
  • Symptoms are signals that some change is needed to avoid further problems or to take advantage of an opportunity.
  • Effective communication insures that research and decision making are directed toward issues and not symptoms!
creativity
CREATIVITY
  • . . . involves combining and synthesizing information into novel ideas.
  • . . . is a divergent thinking exercise.
  • . . . means developing many possible alternatives, not just one.
barriers to creativity
BARRIERS TO CREATIVITY
  • Functional Fixedness.
  • Group Think.
  • Emotional Inhibition.
  • Expediency.
business people lack creativity
BUSINESS PEOPLE LACK CREATIVITY

Thus, their decision making lacks creativity too. So, tips for adding creativity . . . .

  • Quantity creates quality.
  • Defer judgment.
  • Craziness should be encouraged.
  • Get away from the situation.
  • Run with your ideas.
heuristic ideation technique
HEURISTIC IDEATION TECHNIQUE
  • . . . is a very effective way of combining lists and forced combinations to develop large numbers of ideas in a very short period of time.
heuristic ideation matrix hit
Heuristic Ideation Matrix [HIT]

How can food be cooked?

What do people eat for breakfast?

Identify possible new breakfast foods.

evaluation and choice
EVALUATION AND CHOICE
  • The best decision makers avoid any evaluation until a large set of alternatives has been developed.
  • The goal of evaluation and choice is to narrow down the alternative courses of action to those most likely to produce a good outcome.
  • Preliminary screening is used to reduce large numbers of alternatives to a more manageable number.
evaluative criteria
EVALUATIVE CRITERIA

. . . characteristics used to judge the merits

of alternatives. Good alternatives generally

have high levels of some or all of the

following:

  • Advantageousness.
  • Trialability.
  • Observability.
  • Consistency.
  • Simplicity.
field tests
FIELD TESTS
  • Test Market – an experiment evaluating a new product or promotion under real market conditions.
  • Pilot Test – small scale implementation of an idea being considered.
implementation
IMPLEMENTATION
  • Critical to success.
    • good idea + poor implementation = poor result.
  • Often a problem unto itself.
    • C-A-B used again.
monitoring
MONITORING
  • Assessing the extent to which a decision is accomplishing its stated objective.
    • MIS and DSS useful again.
    • Requires feedback.
    • Creates learning instead of failing.
summary
SUMMARY
  • Described the role of research in helping make effective business decisions.
  • Presented a C-A-B process.
  • Discussed importance of actionable research questions.
  • Identified approaches for better problem definition.
  • Suggested ways to enhance creativity.
  • Discussed concepts related to evaluation and choice of alternative decisions.