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Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System 10.1 Application Software 172 10.2 System Software 174 Chapter 10 Software 10.1 Application Software Application software also called applications Programs that perform tasks for users A set of tools for completing a specific type of job

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Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System


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chapter 10 software of a computer system

Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System

10.1 Application Software 172

10.2 System Software 174

10 1 application software

Chapter 10 Software

10.1 Application Software
  • Application software
    • also called applications
    • Programs that perform tasks for users
    • A set of tools for completing a specific type of job
  • 1. Productivity Software
  • 2. Graphic and Multimedia Software
  • 3. Home, Personal and Educational Software
  • 4. Communication Software
application software 10 1 1 productivity software

10.1 Application Software

Application Software10.1.1 Productivity software
  • Productivity software
    • also called business software
    • Increases effectiveness/efficiency of routine clerical work
      • e.g. typing, calculation, charting, record handling, presentation and scheduling etc.
    • Including software for
      • Word processing
      • Spreadsheet
      • Accounting
      • Database
      • Presentation
      • Desktop publishing etc.
application software 10 1 2 graphic and multimedia software

10.1 Application Software

Application Software10.1.2Graphic and multimedia software
  • Graphic and multimedia software
    • Creating/editing multimedia elements
      • e.g. graphics, animation, sound and video
    • Including software for
      • computer-aided design
      • desktop publishing
      • vector/bitmap graphic editing
      • audio/video editing
      • multimedia authoring
      • Web page authoring etc.
application software 10 1 3 home personal and educational software

10.1 Application Software

Application Software10.1.3Home, Personal and Educational Software
  • Software for home users includes
    • home design
    • tax preparation
    • entertainment etc.
  • Software for personal use includes
    • personal finance
    • legal
    • personal information manager etc.
  • Software for educational use includes
    • CAI (computer-aided instruction)
    • CAL (computer-aided learning)
    • clip art/image gallery and encyclopedia etc.
application software 10 1 4 communication software

10.1 Application Software

Application Software10.1.4Communication Software
  • Communication software
    • Enable people to communicate and share information with others
    • Including
      • e-mail
      • Web browsers
      • chat rooms
      • newsgroups
      • instant messaging
      • FTP programs etc.
10 2 system software

Chapter 10 Software

10.2 System Software
  • System software includes three types:
  • 1. Operating System
  • 2. Utility Programs
  • 3. Driver Programs
system software 10 2 1 operating system 1

10.2 System Software

System Software10.2.1 Operating System(1)
  • Operating system (OS)
    • A set of programs
    • Controlling the operation of a computer system
    • Managing resources
    • Providing an interface between users and hardware
  • Without an OS, the programmer have to
    • handle ALL basic functions
      • e.g. displaying text on a screen, sending output to a printer or writing disk files
system software 10 2 1 operating system 2

10.2 System Software

System Software10.2.1 Operating System(2)
  • For the personal computers, the most popular operating systems are
      • Windows
      • MAC OS
      • Linux
      • IBM OS/2etc.
  • Functions of an OS

1. Controlling the operations of a computer system

2. Managing resources

3. Providing an user interface

4. Other tasks

5. Time-sharing

operating system 10 2 1 1 functions of an os 1

10.2.1 Operating System

Operating System10.2.1.1 Functions of an OS (1)
  • 1. Controlling the operations of Hardware
    • An OS controls the operations of peripherals:
      • (1) recognizing input from keyboard;
      • (2) sending output to display;
      • (3) keeping track of files and directories;
      • (4) communicating with other computers.
    • An OS also controls the operation of CPU:
      • (1) scheduling of programs;
      • (2) allocating memory;
      • (3) loading of the programs;
      • (4) controlling program execution.
operating system 10 2 1 2 functions of an os 2

10.2.1 Operating System

Operating System10.2.1.2 Functions of an OS (2)
  • 2. Managing resources
    • An executing program is known as a process
    • Conflicts occur between processes
      • when two or more processes require the same resource (such as memory or printer)
      • Sometimes may lead to system crash
      • Solution: OS handles all the requests and allocates the resources in an orderly manner to avoid crash and improve efficiency.
    • Multi-tasking
      • Load more than one program and switch from one program to another.
      • Through clipboard, data can be transferred between applications
operating system 10 2 1 3 functions of an os 3

10.2.1 Operating System

Operating System10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (3)
  • 3. User interface
    • provide an environment for users to access various parts of the computer system easily
    • Two types of user interface:
    • 1. Command line interface
    • 2. Graphical user interface
operating system 10 2 1 3 functions of an os 4

10.2.1 Operating System

Operating System10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (4)
  • 1. Command line interface
    • Using text to give instruction to the OS
    • User need to memorise a lot of instructions
  • 2. Graphical User Interface (GUI)
    • Displays information in windows
    • User interacts with the interface using pointing device
    • Commands from users are issued by clicking
      • menu,
      • icons,
      • buttons or
      • other graphical objects.
operating system 10 2 1 3 functions of an os 5

10.2.1 Operating System

Operating System10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (5)
  • The advantages of GUI are:

(1) Intuitive, easy to use;

(2) users need not learn a set of instructions to operate the system.

  • The disadvantages of GUI are:

(1) Resource demanding

uses a lot of processing power, memory, and disk space

requires a good graphical display device;

(2) Slow for the experienced users

operating system 10 2 1 4 functions of an os 6

10.2.1 Operating System

Operating System10.2.1.4 Functions of an OS (6)
  • Other tasks of an OS include:
    • Monitoring performance
      • e.g. The memory and CPU usage. OS may warn users if the resources in the computer system get low.
    • Maintaining security
      • e.g. Allowing only authorised users to log on the system
    • Controlling the network
      • e.g. A File server controls access to a network and provides centralised storage area.
    • Communicating with other OS
      • e.g. A Web server may respond to computers with Windows or MAC OS
operating system 10 2 1 5 functions of an os 7

10.2.1 Operating System

Operating System10.2.1.5 Functions of an OS (7)
  • 5. Time sharing
    • For large systems,
      • e.g. Mainframe/Minicomputer
    • Suppose there are 100 users,
    • each given a time slice of 0.01 s to interact with CPU
    • i.e. each user is served 0.01 s in every second.
    • However, all of them will think that they have sole use of the computer!
system software 10 2 2 utility programs 1

10.2 System Software

System Software10.2.2 Utility programs (1)
  • Utility programs (or utilities)
    • Allowing users to manage devices and programs
    • Should be run regularly
    • Some come with the OS
  • Examples
  • File viewer, File compression utility, Diagnostic utility, Uninstaller, Disk scanner, File defragmenter, Backup utility, Screen saver, Anti-virus program
system software 10 2 2 1 utility programs 2

10.2.2 Utility Programs

System Software10.2.2.1 Utility programs (2)
  • 1. File viewers
    • Displaying lists of directories and files in storage
    • Copying, deleting and renaming files
    • Example
      • File Explorer included in Windows.
system software 10 2 2 2 utility programs 3

10.2.2 Utility Programs

System Software10.2.2.2 Utility programs (3)
  • 2. File compression utilities
    • Reducing the size of a file
      • while keeping the content unchanged
    • So that
      • files take up less storage space
      • faster file transmission
    • Examples
      • WinZip and Stuffit
system software 10 2 2 3 utility programs 4

10.2.2 Utility Programs

System Software10.2.2.3 Utility programs (4)
  • 3. Diagnostic utilities
    • Diagnosing problems
    • Reporting errors
    • Suggesting course of action
    • Example
      • Dr. Watson (included in Windows)
system software 10 2 2 4 6 utility programs 5

10.2.2 Utility Programs

System Software10.2.2.4-6 Utility programs (5)
  • 4. Uninstallers
    • Removing applications
  • 5. Disk scanners
    • Detecting and correcting problems on disks
  • 6. File defragmenters
    • Reorganising files and unused space on a hard disk
    • to improve file access
system software 10 2 2 7 utility programs 6

10.2.2 Utility Programs

System Software10.2.2.7 Utility programs (6)
  • 7. Backup utilities
    • Copying selected files or entire hard disk
    • onto a removable storage medium, like a tape
    • The reverse of backup is restoring
system software 10 2 2 8 utility programs 7

10.2.2 Utility Programs

System Software10.2.2.8 Utility programs (7)
  • 8. Screen savers
    • Displaying a moving image/blank screen, if idle for a specified time
    • to prevent images permanently etched on the screen
    • Provide security
      • If the computer is idle for a certain period,
      • assume that the user has left his/her seat, then
      • lock the computer to prevent unauthorised access
system software 10 2 2 9 utility programs 8

10.2.2 Utility Programs

System Software10.2.2.9 Utility programs (8)
  • 9. Anti-virus programs
    • Search the memory, hard disk and incoming files for viruses and
    • remove them
    • Ensure that e-mail attachment with virus will not be saved or executed
    • (For e-mail, viruses mainly exist in the attachement)
    • Auto-update feature
      • Download profiles of new viruses
system software 10 2 3 driver programs

10.2 System Software

System Software10.2.3 Driver Programs
  • Driver programs
    • also called device drivers
    • Add-on codes for extending an OS
      • Once installed, becomes part of the OS
    • Designed for peripherals devices
    • Providing facts about the devices
    • A driver program may
      • exist in the OS or
      • come with the device