Chapter 10 software of a computer system
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Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System 10.1 Application Software 172 10.2 System Software 174 Chapter 10 Software 10.1 Application Software Application software also called applications Programs that perform tasks for users A set of tools for completing a specific type of job

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Chapter 10 software of a computer system l.jpg

Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System

10.1 Application Software 172

10.2 System Software 174


10 1 application software l.jpg

Chapter 10 Software

10.1 Application Software

  • Application software

    • also called applications

    • Programs that perform tasks for users

    • A set of tools for completing a specific type of job

  • 1. Productivity Software

  • 2. Graphic and Multimedia Software

  • 3. Home, Personal and Educational Software

  • 4. Communication Software


Application software 10 1 1 productivity software l.jpg

10.1 Application Software

Application Software10.1.1 Productivity software

  • Productivity software

    • also called business software

    • Increases effectiveness/efficiency of routine clerical work

      • e.g. typing, calculation, charting, record handling, presentation and scheduling etc.

    • Including software for

      • Word processing

      • Spreadsheet

      • Accounting

      • Database

      • Presentation

      • Desktop publishing etc.


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10.1 Application Software

Application Software10.1.2Graphic and multimedia software

  • Graphic and multimedia software

    • Creating/editing multimedia elements

      • e.g. graphics, animation, sound and video

    • Including software for

      • computer-aided design

      • desktop publishing

      • vector/bitmap graphic editing

      • audio/video editing

      • multimedia authoring

      • Web page authoring etc.


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10.1 Application Software

Application Software10.1.3Home, Personal and Educational Software

  • Software for home users includes

    • home design

    • tax preparation

    • entertainment etc.

  • Software for personal use includes

    • personal finance

    • legal

    • personal information manager etc.

  • Software for educational use includes

    • CAI (computer-aided instruction)

    • CAL (computer-aided learning)

    • clip art/image gallery and encyclopedia etc.


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10.1 Application Software

Application Software10.1.4Communication Software

  • Communication software

    • Enable people to communicate and share information with others

    • Including

      • e-mail

      • Web browsers

      • chat rooms

      • newsgroups

      • instant messaging

      • FTP programs etc.


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Chapter 10 Software

10.2 System Software

  • System software includes three types:

  • 1. Operating System

  • 2. Utility Programs

  • 3. Driver Programs


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10.2 System Software

System Software10.2.1 Operating System(1)

  • Operating system (OS)

    • A set of programs

    • Controlling the operation of a computer system

    • Managing resources

    • Providing an interface between users and hardware

  • Without an OS, the programmer have to

    • handle ALL basic functions

      • e.g. displaying text on a screen, sending output to a printer or writing disk files


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10.2 System Software

System Software10.2.1 Operating System(2)

  • For the personal computers, the most popular operating systems are

    • Windows

    • MAC OS

    • Linux

    • IBM OS/2etc.

  • Functions of an OS

    1. Controlling the operations of a computer system

    2. Managing resources

    3. Providing an user interface

    4. Other tasks

    5. Time-sharing


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    10.2.1 Operating System

    Operating System10.2.1.1 Functions of an OS (1)

    • 1. Controlling the operations of Hardware

      • An OS controls the operations of peripherals:

        • (1) recognizing input from keyboard;

        • (2) sending output to display;

        • (3) keeping track of files and directories;

        • (4) communicating with other computers.

      • An OS also controls the operation of CPU:

        • (1) scheduling of programs;

        • (2) allocating memory;

        • (3) loading of the programs;

        • (4) controlling program execution.


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    10.2.1 Operating System

    Operating System10.2.1.2 Functions of an OS (2)

    • 2. Managing resources

      • An executing program is known as a process

      • Conflicts occur between processes

        • when two or more processes require the same resource (such as memory or printer)

        • Sometimes may lead to system crash

        • Solution: OS handles all the requests and allocates the resources in an orderly manner to avoid crash and improve efficiency.

      • Multi-tasking

        • Load more than one program and switch from one program to another.

        • Through clipboard, data can be transferred between applications


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    10.2.1 Operating System

    Operating System10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (3)

    • 3. User interface

      • provide an environment for users to access various parts of the computer system easily

      • Two types of user interface:

      • 1. Command line interface

      • 2. Graphical user interface


    Operating system 10 2 1 3 functions of an os 4 l.jpg

    10.2.1 Operating System

    Operating System10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (4)

    • 1. Command line interface

      • Using text to give instruction to the OS

      • User need to memorise a lot of instructions

    • 2. Graphical User Interface (GUI)

      • Displays information in windows

      • User interacts with the interface using pointing device

      • Commands from users are issued by clicking

        • menu,

        • icons,

        • buttons or

        • other graphical objects.


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    10.2.1 Operating System

    Operating System10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (5)

    • The advantages of GUI are:

      (1) Intuitive, easy to use;

      (2) users need not learn a set of instructions to operate the system.

    • The disadvantages of GUI are:

      (1) Resource demanding

      uses a lot of processing power, memory, and disk space

      requires a good graphical display device;

      (2) Slow for the experienced users


    Operating system 10 2 1 4 functions of an os 6 l.jpg

    10.2.1 Operating System

    Operating System10.2.1.4 Functions of an OS (6)

    • Other tasks of an OS include:

      • Monitoring performance

        • e.g. The memory and CPU usage. OS may warn users if the resources in the computer system get low.

      • Maintaining security

        • e.g. Allowing only authorised users to log on the system

      • Controlling the network

        • e.g. A File server controls access to a network and provides centralised storage area.

      • Communicating with other OS

        • e.g. A Web server may respond to computers with Windows or MAC OS


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    10.2.1 Operating System

    Operating System10.2.1.5 Functions of an OS (7)

    • 5. Time sharing

      • For large systems,

        • e.g. Mainframe/Minicomputer

      • Suppose there are 100 users,

      • each given a time slice of 0.01 s to interact with CPU

      • i.e. each user is served 0.01 s in every second.

      • However, all of them will think that they have sole use of the computer!


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    10.2 System Software

    System Software10.2.2 Utility programs (1)

    • Utility programs (or utilities)

      • Allowing users to manage devices and programs

      • Should be run regularly

      • Some come with the OS

    • Examples

    • File viewer, File compression utility, Diagnostic utility, Uninstaller, Disk scanner, File defragmenter, Backup utility, Screen saver, Anti-virus program


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    10.2.2 Utility Programs

    System Software10.2.2.1 Utility programs (2)

    • 1. File viewers

      • Displaying lists of directories and files in storage

      • Copying, deleting and renaming files

      • Example

        • File Explorer included in Windows.


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    10.2.2 Utility Programs

    System Software10.2.2.2 Utility programs (3)

    • 2. File compression utilities

      • Reducing the size of a file

        • while keeping the content unchanged

      • So that

        • files take up less storage space

        • faster file transmission

      • Examples

        • WinZip and Stuffit


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    10.2.2 Utility Programs

    System Software10.2.2.3 Utility programs (4)

    • 3. Diagnostic utilities

      • Diagnosing problems

      • Reporting errors

      • Suggesting course of action

      • Example

        • Dr. Watson (included in Windows)


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    10.2.2 Utility Programs

    System Software10.2.2.4-6 Utility programs (5)

    • 4. Uninstallers

      • Removing applications

    • 5. Disk scanners

      • Detecting and correcting problems on disks

    • 6. File defragmenters

      • Reorganising files and unused space on a hard disk

      • to improve file access


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    10.2.2 Utility Programs

    System Software10.2.2.7 Utility programs (6)

    • 7. Backup utilities

      • Copying selected files or entire hard disk

      • onto a removable storage medium, like a tape

      • The reverse of backup is restoring


    System software 10 2 2 8 utility programs 7 l.jpg

    10.2.2 Utility Programs

    System Software10.2.2.8 Utility programs (7)

    • 8. Screen savers

      • Displaying a moving image/blank screen, if idle for a specified time

      • to prevent images permanently etched on the screen

      • Provide security

        • If the computer is idle for a certain period,

        • assume that the user has left his/her seat, then

        • lock the computer to prevent unauthorised access


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    10.2.2 Utility Programs

    System Software10.2.2.9 Utility programs (8)

    • 9. Anti-virus programs

      • Search the memory, hard disk and incoming files for viruses and

      • remove them

      • Ensure that e-mail attachment with virus will not be saved or executed

      • (For e-mail, viruses mainly exist in the attachement)

      • Auto-update feature

        • Download profiles of new viruses


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    10.2 System Software

    System Software10.2.3 Driver Programs

    • Driver programs

      • also called device drivers

      • Add-on codes for extending an OS

        • Once installed, becomes part of the OS

      • Designed for peripherals devices

      • Providing facts about the devices

      • A driver program may

        • exist in the OS or

        • come with the device


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