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Ch.3 – Configuring a Router. CCNA 1 version 3.0. Overview. Students completing this module should be able to: Name a router Set passwords Examine show commands Configure a serial interface Configure an Ethernet interface Execute changes to a router Save changes to a router

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overview
Overview

Students completing this module should be able to:

  • Name a router
  • Set passwords
  • Examine show commands
  • Configure a serial interface
  • Configure an Ethernet interface
  • Execute changes to a router
  • Save changes to a router
  • Configure an interface description
  • Configure a message-of-the-day banner
  • Configure host tables
  • Understand the importance of backups and documentation
cli command modes
CLI command modes

Router#configure terminal

Router(config)#

using exit end and control z5
Using exit, end and Control-Z

Router>ena

Router#configure terminal

Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.

Router(config)#?

Configure commands:

aaa Authentication, Authorization and Acc..

access-list Add an access list entry

alias Create command alias

appletalk Appletalk global configuration commands

arap Appletalk Remote Access Protocol

arp Set a static ARP entry

<text omitted>

Router(config)#exit

00:03:20: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by con

Router#

Router(config)#interface interface

Router(config-if)#exit

Router(config)#router routing-protocol

Router(config-router)#exit

Router(config)#exit

Router#

Must be in privileged mode

Message each time you exit “global configuration mode”

using exit end and control z6
Using exit, end and Control-Z

Router# conf t (abbreviated)

Router(config)# router protocol

Router(config-router)# (commands)

Router(config-router)# exit

Router(config)# exit

Router#

Router(config)# interface type port

Router(config-if)# (commands)

Router(config-if)# end (or Control-Z)

Router#

configuring a router name
Configuring a router name

Router#config t

Router(config)#hostname Tokyo

Tokyo(config)#

Lab 12-1: Command Mode and Router Identification: Page 244

configuring router passwords
Configuring router passwords

Not recommended, clear text

Encrypts the passwords above, but…

Use this command instead, password is encryped

Router(config)#enable secret <password>

service password encryption command
service password-encryption command

WARNING

  • service password-encryption uses a Cisco Level 7 encryption which is very easy to decrypt.
  • For the GetPass! software www.boson.com
  • However, the enable secret <password> uses a stronger encryption method and cannot be easily hacked.
enable secret password command
enable secret <password> command
  • More later!

Doesn’t work for enable secret!

Lab 12-2: Configuring Router Passwords. Page 247

examining the show commands
Examining the show commands
  • show interfaces – Displays all the statistics for all the interfaces on the router. To view the statistics for a specific interface, enter the show interfaces command followed by the specific interface and port number.
  • show controllers serial – Displays information-specific to the interface hardware
  • show clock – Shows the time set in the router
  • show hosts – Displays a cached list of host names and addresses
  • show users – Displays all users who are connected to the router
  • show history – Displays a history of commands that have been entered
  • show flash – Displays information about flash memory and what IOS files are stored there
  • show version – Displays information about the router and the IOS that is running in RAM
  • show ARP – Displays the ARP table of the router
  • show protocol – Displays the global and interface specific status of any configured Layer 3 protocols
  • show startup-configuration – Displays the saved configuration located in NVRAM
  • show running-configuration – Displays the configuration currently running in RAM
show interfaces interface command
show interfaces <interface> command

Router>show interface ethernet 0

Ethernet0 is administratively down, line protocol is down , using hub 0

Hardware is Lance, address is 0010.7b3a.cf84 (bia 0010.7b3a.cf84)

MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, rely 255/255, load 1/255

Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)

ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00

Last input never, output 01:05:35, output hang never

Last clearing of "show interface" counters never

Queueing strategy: fifo

Output queue 0/40, 0 drops; input queue 0/75, 0 drops

5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec

5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec

0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 no buffer

Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles

0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored, 0 abort

0 input packets with dribble condition detected

63 packets output, 11676 bytes, 0 underruns

0 output errors, 0 collisions, 1 interface resets

0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred

0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier

0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

Router>

MAC Address

Status

Routing metric information (later)

Data link encapsulation (Ethernet-II)

ARP cache entries timer

examining the show commands14
Examining the show commands
  • We will log into a router and examine some of the show commands.

Lab 12-3: Using Router Show Commands, Page 251

configuring a serial interface
Configuring a serial interface

Router(config)#interface serial 0/0

Router(config-if)#ip address <ip address> <netmask>

Configuring an IP Address on an interface…

show ip interface command
show ip interface command
  • A serial interface will not show “up” and “up” unless both ends are properly configured (mostly) and the no shutdown command is used.
  • If one router’s configuration looks okay, check the other router’s configuration.

Router# show ip interface brief

Interface IP-Address OK? Method Status Protocol

Ethernet0 131.108.1.11 YES manual up up

Serial0 198.135.2.49 YES manual administratively down down

What is wrong here? The administrator has either done a “shutdown” on the interface or has forgotten to do a “no shutdown”.

configuring a serial interface17
Configuring a serial interface

Lab

  • On serial links that are directly interconnected, as in a lab environment, one side must be considered a DCE and provide a clocking signal.
  • The clock is enabled and speed is specified with the clock rate command.

Router(config)#interface serial 0/0

Router(config-if)#clock rate 56000

Router(config-if)#no shutdown

Real world

configuring a serial interface18
Configuring a serial interface

RouterB(config)#inter serial 1

RouterB(config-if)#clock rate ?

Speed (bits per second)

1200

2400

4800

9600

19200

38400

56000

64000

<text omitted>

2000000

4000000

<300-4000000> Choose clockrate from list above

RouterB(config-if)#clock rate 64000

RouterB(config-if)#

RouterA DTE cable

RouterB DCE cable

configuring a serial interface19
Configuring a serial interface

DTE Cable

DCE Cable

How can you tell which end is the DTE and which end is the DCE?

  • Look at the label on the cable.
  • Look at the connecter between the two cables - The DTE cable will always be male and the DCE cable will always be female.
configuring a serial interface20
Configuring a serial interface

RouterA#show controllers serial 0

HD unit 0, idb = 0xECA4C, driver structure at 0xF1EC8

buffer size 1524 HD unit 0, V.35 DTE cable

cpb = 0x62, eda = 0x403C, cda = 0x4050

RX ring with 16 entries at 0x624000

00 bd_ptr=0x4000 pak=0x0F5704 ds=0x62FFB8 status=80 pak_size=22

RouterB#show controllers serial 0

buffer size 1524 HD unit 0, V.35 DCE cable, clockrate 64000

cpb = 0x62, eda = 0x408C, cda = 0x40A0

RX ring with 16 entries at 0x624000

00 bd_ptr=0x4000 pak=0x0F2F04 ds=0x627908 status=80 pak_size=22

RouterA DTE cable

RouterB DCE cable

This is one of few commands where there must be a space between the interface type and the port.

How can you tell which end is the DTE and which end is the DCE?

  • Use the show controllers command!
  • It will also tell you the type of cable, in our labs we will be using a V.35 cable.
configuring a serial interface21
Configuring a serial interface
  • Please be very careful when connecting the male and female V.35 cables together AND when connecting the serial cable to the router!
  • They only connect ONE WAY!
  • Be sure the two ends match!
  • Don’t force it!

This end up!

(The wider end is up.)

Lab 12-4: Configuring a Serial Interface, Page 256

interface descriptions
Interface descriptions

RouterB#show inter e 0

Serial0 is up, line protocol is up

Hardware is HD64570

Description: Engineering LAN, Bldg. 18

Internet address is 10.1.1.1/24

interface descriptions24
Interface descriptions

Gateway(config)#inter e 0

Gateway(config-if)#description LAN interface for Marketing

Gateway(config-if)#end

Gateway#

Gateway#show run

Building configuration...

<text omitted>

!

interface Ethernet0

description LAN interface for Marketing

no ip address

no ip directed-broadcast

shutdown

<text omitted>

Gateway#show interface ethernet 0

Ethernet0 is administratively down, line protocol is down

Hardware is Lance, address is 0000.0c34.9ebb (bia 0000.0c34.9ebb)

Description: LAN interface for Marketing

MTU 1500 bytes, BW 10000 Kbit, DLY 1000 usec, rely 252/255, load 1/255

Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)

ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00

<text omitted>

Gateway#copy run start

Destination filename [startup-config]?

Building configuration...

Gateway#

Don’t forget this or next time router reboots these changes will be lost!

configuring interface description
Configuring interface description

Lab 12-5: Configuring an Ethernet Interface, Page 260

importance of configuration standards
Importance of configuration standards
  • In order to manage a network, there must be a centralized support standard.
  • Configuration, security, performance, and other issues must be adequately addressed for the network to function smoothly.
  • Creating standards for network consistency helps reduce network complexity, the amount of unplanned downtime, and exposure to events that may have an impact on network performance.
executing adds moves and changes
Executing adds, moves, and changes

running-config

startup-config

IOS

Bootup program

IOS (running)

ios (partial)

executing adds moves and changes28
Executing adds, moves, and changes

Router#show startup-config

%% Non-volatile configuration memory is not present

Router#show running-config

Building configuration...

Current configuration:

!

version 12.0

service timestamps debug uptime

service timestamps log uptime

no service password-encryption

!

hostname Router

!

ip subnet-zero

!

!

interface Ethernet0

no ip address

no ip directed-broadcast

shutdown

!

interface Serial0

no ip address

no ip directed-broadcast

shutdown

No startup-config file in NVRAM

Default running-config file, created in RAM

the running config
The running-config

Executing adds, moves, and changes

  • The configuration file contains global, process, and interface information that directly affects the operation of the router and its interface ports.
  • All changes to the router are made to the running-config file and take affect immediately on the router (with just a couple of exceptions).
    • IP address
    • Routing Protocols
    • Router’s Name
    • etc.

Router#show running-config

Building configuration...

Current configuration:

!

version 12.0

service timestamps debug uptime

service timestamps log uptime

no service password-encryption

!

hostname Router

!

ip subnet-zero

!

interface Ethernet0

no ip address

no ip directed-broadcast

shutdown

slide30

copy running-config startup-config

  • Changes to the router are automatically put in the running-config file.
  • If the router loses power or reboots, everything in RAM is lost including the running-config file.
  • To make sure the changes to the router’s configuration remain saved, you must copy the running-config from RAM into the startup-config into NVRAM:

Router# copy running-config startup-config

During bootup

running-config

RAM

startup-config

Router# copy running-config startup-config

copy running config startup config
copy running-config startup-config

Router#copy running-config startup-config

Destination filename [startup-config]?

Building configuration...

Router#show startup-config

!

version 12.0

service timestamps debug uptime

service timestamps log uptime

no service password-encryption

!

hostname Router

!

!

ip subnet-zero

!

interface Ethernet0

no ip address

no ip directed-broadcast

shutdown

!

The startup-config file now identical to running-config and the router will also have these changes if the router reboots.

copy running config startup config32
copy running-config startup-config

Router# copy running-config startup-config

Or

Router# copy running startup

OR

Router# copy run start

OR

Any usage of the command or parameters, so that they are still uniquely recognizable.

WARNING

  • Using an incorrect configuration file name could overwrite the router’s IOS in flash, as the router believes you are trying to copy a blank file into flash.

Router#copy running-config start-up

**** NOTICE ****

Flash load helper v1.0

This process will accept the copy options and then terminate

the current system image to use the ROM based image for the copy.

Routing functionality will not be available during that time.

If you are logged in via telnet, this connection will terminate.

Users with console access can see the results of the copy operation.

---- ******** ----

Proceed? [confirm]^C

%Copy cancelled by user request.

Router#

Incorrect file name!

Press <control> C

copy running config startup config33
copy running-config startup-config

Router# copy running-config startup-config

Or

Router# copy running startup

OR

Router# copy run start

OR

Any usage of the command or parameters, so that they are still uniquely recognizable.

WARNING

  • This is also incorrect, and will overwrite the startup-config with a blank file.

Router#copy runningconfig startup-config

Destination filename [startup-config]?

?Bad filename

Router#

Incorrect file name!

Press <control> C

displaying the config files
Displaying the config files

show running-config

show startup-config

1

These commands can only be done in privilege mode because they display password information.

executing adds moves and changes35
Executing adds, moves, and changes

Mistake: Should be: copy start run

reinforcing what we learned
Reinforcing What We Learned
  • Lab 12-6: Making configuration Changes, Page 262
  • Lab 12-7: Configuring Interface Descriptions, Page 266
login banners and configuring message of the day motd
Login banners and Configuring message-of-the-day (MOTD)

Wording is not the same, but you get the idea.

login banners and configuring message of the day motd38
Login banners and Configuring message-of-the-day (MOTD)

Lab 12-8: Configuring Message of the Day, Page 269

Router(config)#hostname Gateway

Gateway(config)#

Gateway(config)#banner motd #

Enter TEXT message. End with the character '#'.

Warning!

Stay away! #

Gateway(config)#end

Gateway#exit

Press RETURN to get started.

Warning!

Stay away!

User Access Verification

Password:

Gateway#show run

Building configuration...

<text omitted>

!

hostname Gateway

!

<text omitted>

!

banner motd ^C

Warning!

Stay away! ^C

Prompt changes

MOTD (Message Of The Day)

Delimiter always shows as “^C”

host name resolution
Host name resolution

Router# ping 172.16.32.1

Router# ping Auckland

Router# telnet 192.168.53.1

Router# telnet Beirut

Router# traceroute 192.168.89.1

Router# traceroute Capetown

  • The Cisco IOS software maintains a cache of host name-to-address mappings for use by EXEC commands.
  • This cache speeds up the process of converting names to addresses.
  • Host names, unlike DNS names, are significant only on the router on which they are configured. (DNS is also an option – later)
host name resolution40
Host name resolution
  • This does not make the router a DNS (Domain Name Server).
  • This command does not turn your router into a DNS server.
  • This command does not effect packets entering your router to be routed.
  • This only affects the IOS commands entered at the router prompt.
  • Multiple ip addresses can be entered in case one interface is down.
  • It is usually a good idea to use the same list of names on all your router configs.

Configuring Multiple IP Addresses

Router(config)# ip host SantaCruz 172.16.32.1 192.168.53.1

slide42
If you are not using the services of a DNS server, it is best to disable this process.
  • DNS (Domain Name Service) is enabled by default with a server address of 255.255.255.255, which is a local broadcast.
  • If enabled, with no DNS server on the network, may cause a slight, but irritable delay when making typing mistakes.

Lab 12-9: Configuring Host Tables, Page271

Router(config)# ip domain-lookup

Router#wreh

Translating "wreh"...domain server (255.255.255.255) (Takes a few seconds)

Translating "wreh"...domain server (255.255.255.255) (Takes a few seconds)

Router(config)# no ip domain-lookup

Router#wreh

Translating "wreh"

% Unknown command or computer name, or unable to find computer address

configuration backup and documentation
Configuration backup and documentation
  • Configuration files should be stored as backup files in the event of a problem.
  • Configuration files can be stored on a network server, on a TFTP server, or on a disk stored in a safe place.
copying editing and pasting configurations
Copying, editing, and pasting configurations
  • A TFTP server will allow image and configuration uploads and downloads over the network.
  • The TFTP server can be another router, or it can be a host system.
copying editing and pasting configurations45
Copying, editing, and pasting configurations
  • The TFTP host can be any system that has TFTP software loaded and operating and able to receive files from the TCP/IP network.
copying editing and pasting configurations46
Copying, editing, and pasting configurations

startup-config

running-config

IOS

RAM

IOS (running)

copy flash tftp

copy tftp flash

copy startup-config tftp

copy tftp startup-config

copy running-config tftp

copy tftp running-config

copying editing and pasting configurations47
Copying, editing, and pasting configurations
  • Troubleshooting: Be sure you can ping the TFTP server.
slide48

TFTP Software and Servers

  • When using Windows, the TFTP server software must be running.
  • The copy can be performed from the console port or from a telnet session.
  • The telnet session can be performed on the same computer where the TFTP server is running (or to a different computer).

Router# copy flash tftp

slide49

TFTP Software and Servers

  • TFTP software either comes free with the OS (Linux/Unix) or can be downloaded for free.
slide50

TFTP Software and Servers

  • Just double click on the shortcut…
  • Remember, TFTP is “Trivial” FTP:
    • No authentication
    • No login
    • No choice for directory
    • Uses UDP and verified via a TFTP checksum (not TCP ACKs)

Managing Configuration Files with TFTP, Page 323

summary 1 2
Summary (1/2)

The router has several modes:

  • User EXEC mode
  • Privileged EXEC mode
  • Global configuration mode
  • Other configuration modes

The command-line interface may be used to make changes to the configuration:

  • Setting the hostname
  • Setting passwords
  • Configuring interfaces
  • Modifying configurations
  • Showing configurations
summary 2 2
Summary (2/2)

An understanding of the following key points should have been achieved:

  • Configuration standards are key elements in the success of any organization maintaining an efficient network.
  • Interface descriptions can include important information to help network administrators understand and troubleshoot their networks.
  • Login banners and messages-of-the-day provide users with information upon login to the router.
  • Host name resolutions translate names to IP addresses to allow the router to quickly convert names to addresses.
  • Configuration backup and documentation is extremely important to keep a network operating smoothly.