WCDR Hyogo Framework for Action: • Calls upon member States with support of UN, Regional and Civil Society organisations to prioritise: • “Incorporation of disaster risk reduction measures into post disaster recovery and rehabilitation processes, • use opportunities during recovery phase to develop capacities that reduce disaster risk in the long run, including • through sharing of expertise , knowledge and lessons learnt”
What recent recovery experiences are telling us • UNDP disaster post disaster recovery experiences (Gujarat, Indonesia) • Non integration of risk reduction in recovery, sometimes rebuilding risk; • Needs assessment not always demand driven, stake holder consultative processes weak; • Institutions set up to manage recovery- have not led to sustained national and local capacities for disaster deduction; • Opportunities for Transformative Recovery require upscaling of small innovative initiatives led by civil society organisations in the larger reconstruction plans, which do not always happen
Gujarat Earthquake 2001 Rehabilitation: the tyranny of rush • 1.5 billion USD programme, to be disbursed rapidly, political pressures to speed the benefits to affected householders • Cash disbursement without hazard resistant technology dissemination • Danger of rebuilding previous vulnerabilities • Monitoring , feed back by Civil society networks (setus, funded by DFID, USAID, SDC and Netherlands brought about midterm corrections)
Indonesia Resettlement plans : new risks? • Massive destruction of settlements, more than 400,000 people displaced, • Plans to relocate randomly dispersed IDP camps into 24 interim shelter camps, • Site selection creating new risks as clearing hill rain forests • Opportunity for zone planning on basis of environmental considerations, need to be driven by local participative processes Gujarat : Civil society networks launched participative process of consulting villages and reversed GOG policy to relocate villages If Recovery plans for Shelter are to lead to community resilience needs time, process and participation
Indonesia: Damage and Needs Assessment Methodology: Formulating recovery programmes based on consensus and stakeholder participation • Assessment driven by the need to secure donor commitments • Limited possibilities of community and local stake holders consultations • Multiple agencies appealed for similar sectors • Difficult to ensure that global technical skills of will come together seamlessly to serve Aceh Recovery (these were not part of the sectoral needs assessments) • Highlights the need to establish predefined roles as per comparative advantages, through a shared, commonly owned needs assessment methodology
Capacity for Managing Recovery UN system: Inadequate resources for RECOVERY in UNCT • absence of predictable surge as in UNDAC, as post disaster Recovery programmes swell 8/9 times normal developmental operations, BCPR – UNDP supports co-ordination through Trac resources: not a predictable UN/ International system mechanism National actors: Create para-statal to manage huge Recovery programmes/ not sustained after life of project (MEERP,GSDMA, Office of National Reconstruction, Jamaica) • Indonesia: set reconstruction team in BAPPENAS, with 10 sectoral teams • Linkages to decentralised BAPPEDAS, and district Administration complex , as all developmental resources have been delegated to District Administration • Danger of turning into parallel government structures that overlap functions and mandates and bypass accountability and control mechanisms
Resource vs. local absorptive capacity: Indonesia and Gujarat Indonesia: Huge resource commitments for Flash Appeal, 350 millionn USD, in flash, 3 .9 billion reconstruction plan at CGI, many International NGO have upwards of few hundred million USD • However absorptive capacity constraints : local Govt, NGO, civil servants ,already weakened by conflict, decimated by Tsunami • Possibilities to empower the people of Aceh, and Local govt. of Aceh Indonesia need a deep consultative process with local communities, upscale innovations initiated by civil society organisations Gujarat Earthquake :Gap at sub-district level, in view of Huge magnitude of Funds to be channelised by Govt, WB, ADB at the Sub District level • Need to strengthen Institutional Capacity at the cluster of 15 villages --Sub Center level, to absorb development funding, transparency of expenditures, grievance redressal, information sharing • Setting up Setus- Bridges, SDC, USAID and DFID, later up scaled under WB funded Rehab Programmes
Tsunami Early Warning vs Multi Hazard risk reduction Indonesian plan is based on science : seismographs to monitor earthquakes, buoys to monitor wave movements, satellite communications to trigger siren warning of Tsunami in remote communities Aim to reduce dependence on human communication chain by making technology communicate to people directly • However established best practice reveals community based preparedness and awareness campaigns, local community based mechanisms to trigger response work robustly Gujarat: Shift from less frequent earthquake to more probable Droughts, multi hazard assessment and risk management Planning • Multi-Hazard prone-drought, cyclones • Drought impoverished, cyclone devastated families do not have livelihood security to build earthquake houses • Comprehensive development plan, ecological restoration, drought proofing, sustainable livelihoods
Indonesia Tsunami: opportunity for transformative recovery • Aceh has 20 year old separatist movement run by GAM, GOI has invested heavily in military security • Destruction of Police stations, courts and death of police personnel Possibilities for reducing high cost military security and substituting community policing, rule of law institutions based on traditional courts • Death of civil Servants: recruitment for Acehenese, open transparent • Capacity enhancement of Distt/ sub district offices by training, new civil service and providing technical support for damage assessments, infrastructure and settlement planning, risk reduction through mitigation measures in housing and spatial planning, early warning, and conflict sensitive development practices, • Progress in Peace talks indicator of opportunity to rebuild with peace
Key Challenges for International Community/ UN • Strengthening international and national capacities to deliver recovery strategies and programmes informed of lessons learnt from the past • Institutional arrangements: to support local empowerment, strengthening local absorptive capacities • Recovery tool kit: commonly shared Needs Assessment methodology to derive transitional recovery needs, with associated risk mitigation components, with division of roles as per comparative advantages, and training in these tools • Predictable partnerships:need for pre-established partnerships across UN agencies, IFIs, key government line ministries
Defining recovery • International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) definition: “decisions and actions taken after a disaster with a view to restoring or improving the pre-disaster living conditions of the stricken community, while encouraging and facilitating necessary adjustments to reduce disaster risk”.Recovery from a disaster is thus primarily about: • Shifting focus from saving lives to restoring livelihoods • Effectively preventing the recurrence of crisis situations • Harnessing conditions for future development • Building on national capacities • Empowering communities • Determining/addressing root causes and vulnerabilities
Alternate Paths of Transition from Relief to Development– A Model MDGs Sustainable Development MDGs by 2015 Connection – Recovery to SHD Pre disaster HPI Aceh Post Tsunami HPI Aceh PRE- Disaster,HDI( poverty index) Human Poverty Index Poverty as a proxy MDGs Recovery Community, Govt ownership with vulnerability reduction , conflict prevention, builds Community resilience Ideal Recovery Continuum of Relief and Recovery Uneven recovery( cotracter driven) Unsustainable recovery(siesmically unsafe housing) TIME R (ideal) R (delayed) 2015 Humanitarian Response Transition Recovery
International Recovery Platform (IRP) proposed at WCDR, Kobe • The IRP to function as an international repository of knowledge and clearing-house mechanism for recovery that currently does not exist within the UN system. • The IRP will promote a shared vision and common approach and strategies for its members
IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES • To provide a coordination framework and network for post-disaster recovery, in support of the Resident Coordinator system and disaster affected ,donors, IFIs and others • To facilitate the dissemination of lessons learned and the development of common tools and mechanisms • To provide advice on the formulation of post-disaster recovery planning and programming with risk reduction approach • To strengthen national capacities for post-disaster recovery ensuring links with longer term development programming • To facilitate South-South co-operation between disaster prone countries; utilize the accumulated know-how of these countries in post-disaster recovery.
Advocacy Knowledge Management Capacity Building Support Enhanced Recovery Operations Interlinked service lines of IRP Recovery operations occur with lack of capacity and knowledge tools in absence of a concerted recovery platform
1- Advocacy and Knowledge Management • Recovery needs assessment and planning tools • The systematization of recovery experiences • Information Management tools • Programming tools
2)Capacity Building • Activities to build the capacities for post-disaster recovery with an emphasis on human resource development within UN Country Teams, as well as national and international counterparts. • Key human resources trained in post-disaster recovery concepts and skills. • Global network of experts and global databases for recovery experts established. • Training curricula, manuals and modules produced.
3)Enhanced RecoveryOperations • Provision of common tools and mechanisms for operational activities in recovery • South-South cooperation amongst disaster prone countries that have world-class capacities in this area • Enhanced capacity of UN Country teams and national and local authorities able to develop recovery plans that incorporate risk reduction and response preparedness elements • Technical surge capacity support services available to UN Country teams and national and local authorities, to provide technical assistance to post-disaster recovery operations. • Advisory services to UN Country teams and national and local authorities to develop resource mobilisation strategies, consistent with requirements of IFIs including regional banks.