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CHAPTER 12 DNA Technology and the Human Genome. Modules 12.15 – 12.21. THE CHALLENGE OF THE HUMAN GENOME. 12.13 Most of the human genome does not consist of genes. The 23 chromosomes in the haploid human genome contain about 3 billion nucleotide pairs

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12 13 most of the human genome does not consist of genes
THE CHALLENGE OF THE HUMAN GENOME12.13 Most of the human genome does not consist of genes
  • The 23 chromosomes in the haploid human genome contain about 3 billion nucleotide pairs
    • This DNA is believed to include about 35,000 genes and a huge amount of noncoding DNA
slide3
Much of the noncoding DNA consists of repetitive nucleotide sequences
  • One example includes telomeres at the end of the chromosomes

Repeated unit

End ofDNAmolecule

NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF A HUMAN TELOMERE

Figure 12.13A

slide4
Barbara McClintock discovered that segments of DNA called transposons can move about within a cell’s genome

Figure 12.13B, C

12 14 connection the human genome project is unlocking the secrets of our genes
12.14 Connection: The Human Genome Project is unlocking the secrets of our genes
  • The Human Genome Project involves:
    • genetic and physical mapping of chromosomes
    • DNA sequencing
    • comparison of human genes with those of other species

Figure 12.14

12 15 connection dna technology is used in courts of law
OTHER APPLICATIONS OF DNA TECHNOLOGY12.15 Connection: DNA technology is used in courts of law
  • DNA fingerprinting can help solve crimes

Defendant’sblood

Blood fromdefendant’sclothes

Victim’sblood

Figure 12.15A, B

12 16 connection recombinant cells and organisms can mass produce gene products
12.16 Connection: Recombinant cells and organisms can mass-produce gene products
  • Recombinant cells and organisms are used to manufacture useful proteins

Table 12.16

slide8
These sheep carry a gene for a human blood protein that is a potential treatment for cystic fibrosis

Figure 12.16

12 17 connection dna technology is changing the pharmaceutical industry and medicine
12.17 Connection: DNA technology is changing the pharmaceutical industry and medicine
  • Hormones, cancer-fighting drugs, and new vaccines are being produced using DNA technology
    • This lab equipment is used to produce a vaccine against hepatitis B

Figure 12.17

12 18 connection genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture
12.18 Connection: Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture
  • New genetic varieties of animals and plants are being produced
    • A plant with a new trait can be created using the Ti plasmid
slide11
Agrobacteriumtumefaciens

DNA containinggene for desired trait

Plant cell

1

2

3

Tiplasmid

RecombinantTi plasmid

Insertion ofgene into plasmidusing restrictionenzyme and DNAligase

Introductioninto plantcells inculture

Regenerationof plant

T DNA

T DNAcarryingnew genewithin plantchromosome

Plant withnew trait

Restrictionsite

Figure 12.18A

slide12
This rice could help prevent vitamin A deficiency
  • “Golden rice” has been genetically modified to contain beta-carotene

Figure 12.18B

12 19 connection gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases
12.19 Connection: Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases

Cloned gene (normal allele)

1

Insertnormal geneinto virus

  • Techniques for manipulating DNA have potential for treating disease by altering an afflicted individual’s genes
    • Progress is slow, however
    • There are also ethical questions related to gene therapy

Viral nucleicacid

Retrovirus

2

Infect bonemarrow cellwith virus

3

Viral DNAinserts intochromosome

Bone marrowcell from patient

Bone

marrow

4

Inject cellsinto patient

Figure 12.19

12 20 connection could gm organisms harm human health or the environment
RISKS AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS12.20 Connection: Could GM organisms harm human health or the environment?
  • Genetic engineering involves some risks
    • Possible ecological damage from pollen transfer between GM and wild crops
    • Pollen from a transgenic variety of corn that contains a pesticide may stunt or kill monarch caterpillars

Figure 12.20A, B

12 21 connection dna technology raises important ethical questions
12.21 Connection: DNA technology raises important ethical questions
  • Our new genetic knowledge will affect our lives in many ways
  • The deciphering of the human genome, in particular, raises profound ethical issues
    • Many scientists have counseled that we must use the information wisely

Figure 12.21A-C

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