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Adding Variety with Sentence Structure. Objectives Identify independent and dependent clauses. (subordinate) Identify the four kinds of sentence structure. Use the four types of sentence structure in original writing.

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adding variety with sentence structure
Adding VarietywithSentence Structure
  • Objectives
    • Identify independent and dependent clauses.

(subordinate)

    • Identify the four kinds of sentence structure.
    • Use the four types of sentence structure in original writing.
clause a group of related words which has both a subject and a predicate
Clause:a group of related words which has both a subject and a predicate
  • Independent or Main Clause:
    • Presents a complete thought and can stand as a sentence
    • A small horse can attack a large horse.
    • It kicks its heels in the horse’s belly.
  • Dependent or Subordinate Clause
    • Does not present a complete thought and cannot stand as a sentence
    • If it kicks its heels in the horse’s belly
    • So that they can stay warm during the winter
independent clause dependent clause subordinate
Independent ClauseDependent Clause(subordinate)
  • A small horse can attack a large horseif it kicks its heels in the horse’s belly.
  • Sparrows make nests in cattle barnsso that they can stay warm during the winter.
  • If it kicks its heels in the horse’s belly, a small horse can attack a large horse.
  • So that they can stay warm during the winter, sparrows make nests in cattle barns.
four types of sentence structure
Four TypesofSentence Structure
  • Simple
  • Compound
  • Complex
  • Compound-Complex
simple sentence one independent clause
Simple Sentence(one independent clause)
  • Judy went to the mall.
  • Judy and Mike went to the mall.
  • Judy went to the mall and bought shoes.
  • Judy and Mike went to the mall and bought shoes.
compound sentence two independent clauses joined
Compound Sentence(two independent clauses joined)
  • Coordinate Conjunctions
    • and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so
  • Correlative Conjunctions
    • either / or neither / nor not only / but also both/and, whether/or
  • Conjunctive Adverbs
    • therefore, nevertheless, however, moreover
compound sentences
Compound Sentences
  • Coordinate conjunction
    • Judy will go to the mall, orshe will go to the local shopping center.
  • Correlative Conjunction
    • Not onlywill Judy go to the mall, but alsoshe will go to the local shopping center.
  • Conjunctive Adverb
    • Judy went to the mall; however,she found little in her size on sale.
complex sentence one independent clause one or more dependent clauses
Complex Sentence(oneindependent clause+ one or more dependent clauses)
  • When she heard there was a sale at Dillard’s, Judy went to the mall.
  • Judy went to the mallbecause there was a sale at Dillard’s.
  • When she heard there was a sale at Dillard’s, Judy went to the mallbecause she needed new shoes.
compound complex sentence two or more independent clauses one or more dependent clauses
Compound-Complex Sentence(two or more independent clauses+ one or more dependent clauses)
  • Because there was a sale at Dillard’s, Judy went to the mall, butshe was unable to find shoes in her size.
  • The slacks that Judy found were quite inexpensive, andshe decided to purchase three pairs.
  • Because there was a sale at Dillard’s, Judy went to the mall, butthe slacks that were on sale were not available in her size.
now you try these
Now you try these:
  • Frances would like to ride on a streetcar but has never visited a city that has one.
    • Complex
    • Frances would like to ride on a streetcar but has never visited a citythat has one.
  • Dale is unable to attend today’s rehearsal because of unforeseen circumstances.
    • Simple
  • Dale is unable to attend today’s rehearsalbecause of unforeseen circumstances.
slide11
The scientists were amazed by the discovery, and they did further tests that verified their findings.
    • Compound-complex
    • The scientists were amazed by the discovery, andthey did further teststhat verified their findings.
  • The mayor, whom I met last year, has not announced that she is running for re-election.
    • Complex
  • The mayor, whom I met last year, has not announcedthat she is running for re-election.
slide12
Since the animals of the arctic are remarkably adapted to the climate, they don’t mind the cold at all.
    • Complex
    • Since the animals of the arctic are remarkably adapted to the climate,they don’t mind the cold at all.
  • As the fifth round began, the wrestler looked tired, but he had enough strength left to pin his opponent.
    • Compound-Complex
  • As the fifth round began, the wrestler looked tired, but he had enough strength left to pin his opponent.
slide13
I went to the nearby skating rink, but it was closed because of the warm weather.
    • Compound
  • I went to the nearby skating rink, butit was closed because of the warm weather.
  • If you want to, you can do a research paper that surveys the history of writing from ancient times to the present.
    • Complex
  • If you want to, you can do a research paperthat surveys the history of writing from ancient times to the present.
slide14
Harold will appreciate whatever gift you choose for him.
    • Complex
    • Harold will appreciatewhatever gift you choose for him.
  • Would you like to see the brand-new herbarium featuring rare dried plants?
    • Simple
  • Would you like to see the brand-new herbarium featuring rare dried plants?
slide15
***Quiz***
  • When morning came, the campers drove off in their van, and the ranger breathed a sigh of relief.
  • The dog sleeping in front of the fireplace can be very grouchy.
  • The Bears are an immensely popular football team; therefore, their fans follow their games avidly.
  • The chartered ship sails wherever the passengers want to go.
answers
***Answers***
  • 1. Compound-complex 2. Simple
  • 3. Compound 4. Complex
  • When morning came, the campers drove off in their van, andthe ranger breathed a sigh of relief.
  • The dog sleeping in front of the fireplace can be very grouchy.
  • The Bears are a popular football team; therefore,their fans follow their games avidly.
  • The chartered ship sailswherever the passengers want to go.