ADAPTATION TO
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ADAPTATION TO DISEASE STRESS. Human/Microbe Interactions Co-Evolution of Disease Sickle Cell Anemia Black Death Polio. INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION. Host-microbe interaction A well adapted microbe lives in the host for a long time A successful disease does not kill its host.

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ADAPTATION TO

DISEASE STRESS

Human/Microbe Interactions

Co-Evolution of Disease

Sickle Cell Anemia

Black Death

Polio


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INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION

  • Host-microbe interaction

  • A well adapted microbe lives in the host for a long time

  • A successful disease does not kill its host

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION

PARASITE: an organism that derives nourishment from a living plant or animal

  • Escherichia coli

  • Staphylococcus aureus

  • Streptococcus mutans

  • Pneumocystic carinii

  • Neisseria meninigitidis

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION

  • tapeworm

  • hookworm

  • anthrax

  • brucellosis

  • encphalopathy

  • Lyme disease

  • tuberculosis ?

ZOONOSES: animal disease transmissible to humans

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION

ENDEMIC: peculiar to or occurring constantly in a population

  • goiter

  • yellow fever

  • chicken pox

  • hookworm

  • herpes

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION

EPIDEMIC: a sudden increase in the incidence rate of a disease over a wide area

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

  • Hunting/Gathering populations

  • Settled Villages

  • Pre-Industrial Cities

  • Industrialized Cities

  • Today

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

“Homosapiens (have) been vulnerable to microbial assults over the millennia…each catastrophic epidemic event in human history (was) the ironic result of humanity’s steps forward. As humans improve their lots, they actually increase their vulnerability to disease.

We’ll never escape the limits of the ecosystem. We are caught in the food chain, whether we like it or not, eating and being eaten.”

Garrett, Laurie (1994). The Coming Plague. New York: Penguin Books, pp. 6-7.

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

Hunter/Gatherers

  • 99% of human history

  • small groups

  • isolated, well dispersed

  • parasitic & zoonotic

  • rabies, sleeping sickness, tetnus

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

Settled Villages

  • began with the Neolithic ‘revolution’ about 10,000 BP

  • food production brings settlement

  • populations increase 16 fold

  • disposal problems & animals nearby

  • zoonotic disease intensity increases

  • anthrax, brucellosis, bovine TB

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

PreindustrialCities

  • ~5,000 yr BP

  • endemic diseases

  • small pox, TB, measles, influenza

  • 1st epidemics

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

Industrialized Cities

  • increased population density

  • increased squalid conditions

  • epidemics, viruses, endemic, pandemics

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE

Today

  • “global village”

  • antibiotic resistance

  • age-related degeneration

  • emerging disease

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

“We are engaged in a type of race, enmeshing our

ecologic circumstances with evolutionary changes in our predatory competitors...We have crowded together a hotbed of opportunity for infectious agents…Affluent and mobile people are ready, willing, and able to carry afflictions all over the world within 24 hours' notice. This condensation, stratification, and mobility is unique, defining us as a very different species from what we were 100 years ago…But despite many potential defenses—vaccines, antibiotics, diagnostic tools—we are intrinsically more vulnerable than before, at least in terms of pandemic and communicable diseases.”

Lederberg, Joshua. (1997). “Infectious disease as an evolutionary paradigm.” Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3(4).

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

HUNTER/GATHERERS parasites, zoonoses

SETTLED VILLAGES intensified zoonoses, infection

PREINDISTRIALIZE CITIES endemic, beginnings of epidemics

INDUSTRIALIZED CITIES endemic, epidemic, pandemics

TODAY age-related disease, emerging diseases

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Polio

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Polio

  • virus

  • WWII American & Egyptian soldiers

  • antiseptic conditions

  • childhood form

  • adult immunity

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

  • low O2 tension

  • capillary blockage

Sickle Cell

Anemia

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Sickle Cell Anemia

  • point mutation

  • SS, Ss, ss = genotypes

  • African & Mediterranean groups

  • Anopheles gambiae mosquito

  • 150 bites per year

  • 100% infection rate in kids

  • 25% greater survivability = Ss

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

The Black Death

  • particularly virulent strain of plague

  • by 1350, 20,000,000 dead

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

  • arrived in Britain via Bristol in 1349

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

  • caused by Yersinia pestis

  • from animal vector to flea to humans

  • begins in bubonic form, becomes pneumonic form

  • pneumonic plague spreads from person to person

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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FLU QUESTIONS

Younger people are more social & mobile

Older people immunized by previous exposure to less virulent strains.

Viruses mutate in unpredictable ways.

Kill the host or leave it immune, therefore it died out. When it resurfaces, less ‘candidates’ available.

Still not sequenced, tho’ they do have the DNA from samples at the AFIP.

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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FLU PANDEMICS

1918 Spanish Flu: 500,000 in the US, between 20 and 50 million worldwide. Over half young healthy adults.

1957-58 Asian Flu: 70,000 in the US.

1968-69 Hong Kong Flu: 34,000 in the US.

1976 Swine Flu scare

1977 Russian Flu scare

1997,99 Avian Flu scare

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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FLU QUESTIONS

  • Chicken pox/herpes

  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZC)

  • “Shingles is sometimes called “herpes zoster” but it is not caused by a herpes virus”

  • “Part of the Herpes family, for which there are over 100 types”

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Societal changes

  • city life stopped

  • harvests were uncollected

  • bodies piled up in the streets

  • no sanitation

  • no bread baked

  • famine, lawlessness

  • houses abandoned

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

“Cures”

  • eat lettuce

  • alternate sleep on left & right sides to keep liver balanced

  • apply paste of gum resin, white lillies & human excrement

  • don’t think about it

  • thin blood with leeches

  • burn fires to purify the air

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

“Causes”

  • moral pollution; 1/3 of Cardinals died

  • Jewish plot to destroy Christendom

  • opportunity to get rid of debts, Jews were money lenders

  • Jews were killed before plague arrived in many towns

  • image of a witch

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Results

  • macabre art becomes common

  • labor shortage results in end of feudal system

  • recurring outbreaks last for another 300 years

  • the Renaissance is born

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Plague Today

  • 10-15 cases/yr in the US

  • 1000-3000 cases worldwide

  • northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, southern Colorado

  • California, southern Oregon, far western Nevada

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Blood Types -- ABO System

  • A & B alleles are co-dominant

  • proteins (antigens) on outer surface

Genotype Phenotype

AA or AA A

BB or BO B

AB AB

OO O

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Blood Types -- ABO System

  • Joan Barry, actress

  • “white slavery”

  • 1941, 1946 ruling

  • child support till 18

  • “looked like him”

  • Baby type B

  • Mother type A

  • Chaplin type 0

  • Supreme Court did not admit blood typing evidence

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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A

A

A

O

O

O

AO

AO

OO

AO

O

O

AO

AO

AO

OO

CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Blood Types -- ABO System

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Blood Types -- ABO System

  • natural immunity

  • antibodies to other allele

  • Type O = universal donor (no protein to cause reaction)

  • Type AB = universal recipient (no antibodies to either allele)

Genotype Antibodies

AA or AA anti-B

BB or BO anti-A

AB none

OO both

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE

Blood Types and Disease

  • H-antigen is similar to protein on Yersinia pestis

  • lives in blood type O individuals longer, gains a foothold

  • killed huge numbers of blood type O as a result

  • easily rebounded as a result of heterozygotes

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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Today type O is ~45%

Today type A is ~43%

Today type B is ~9%

Today type AB is ~ 3%


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RECOMMENDED READINGS

HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress


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