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ADAPTATION TO DISEASE STRESS
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ADAPTATION TO DISEASE STRESS

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  1. ADAPTATION TO DISEASE STRESS Human/Microbe Interactions Co-Evolution of Disease Sickle Cell Anemia Black Death Polio

  2. INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION • Host-microbe interaction • A well adapted microbe lives in the host for a long time • A successful disease does not kill its host HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  3. INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION PARASITE: an organism that derives nourishment from a living plant or animal • Escherichia coli • Staphylococcus aureus • Streptococcus mutans • Pneumocystic carinii • Neisseria meninigitidis HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  4. INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION • tapeworm • hookworm • anthrax • brucellosis • encphalopathy • Lyme disease • tuberculosis ? ZOONOSES: animal disease transmissible to humans HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  5. INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION ENDEMIC: peculiar to or occurring constantly in a population • goiter • yellow fever • chicken pox • hookworm • herpes HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  6. INTERSPECIFIC CO-ADAPTATION EPIDEMIC: a sudden increase in the incidence rate of a disease over a wide area HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  7. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE • Hunting/Gathering populations • Settled Villages • Pre-Industrial Cities • Industrialized Cities • Today HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  8. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE “Homosapiens (have) been vulnerable to microbial assults over the millennia…each catastrophic epidemic event in human history (was) the ironic result of humanity’s steps forward. As humans improve their lots, they actually increase their vulnerability to disease. We’ll never escape the limits of the ecosystem. We are caught in the food chain, whether we like it or not, eating and being eaten.” Garrett, Laurie (1994). The Coming Plague. New York: Penguin Books, pp. 6-7. HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  9. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE Hunter/Gatherers • 99% of human history • small groups • isolated, well dispersed • parasitic & zoonotic • rabies, sleeping sickness, tetnus HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  10. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE Settled Villages • began with the Neolithic ‘revolution’ about 10,000 BP • food production brings settlement • populations increase 16 fold • disposal problems & animals nearby • zoonotic disease intensity increases • anthrax, brucellosis, bovine TB HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  11. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE PreindustrialCities • ~5,000 yr BP • endemic diseases • small pox, TB, measles, influenza • 1st epidemics HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  12. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE Industrialized Cities • increased population density • increased squalid conditions • epidemics, viruses, endemic, pandemics HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  13. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN DISEASE Today • “global village” • antibiotic resistance • age-related degeneration • emerging disease HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  14. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE “We are engaged in a type of race, enmeshing our ecologic circumstances with evolutionary changes in our predatory competitors...We have crowded together a hotbed of opportunity for infectious agents…Affluent and mobile people are ready, willing, and able to carry afflictions all over the world within 24 hours' notice. This condensation, stratification, and mobility is unique, defining us as a very different species from what we were 100 years ago…But despite many potential defenses—vaccines, antibiotics, diagnostic tools—we are intrinsically more vulnerable than before, at least in terms of pandemic and communicable diseases.” Lederberg, Joshua. (1997). “Infectious disease as an evolutionary paradigm.” Emerging Infectious Diseases, 3(4). HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  15. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE HUNTER/GATHERERS parasites, zoonoses SETTLED VILLAGES intensified zoonoses, infection PREINDISTRIALIZE CITIES endemic, beginnings of epidemics INDUSTRIALIZED CITIES endemic, epidemic, pandemics TODAY age-related disease, emerging diseases HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  16. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Polio HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  17. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Polio • virus • WWII American & Egyptian soldiers • antiseptic conditions • childhood form • adult immunity HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  18. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE • low O2 tension • capillary blockage Sickle Cell Anemia HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  19. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Sickle Cell Anemia • point mutation • SS, Ss, ss = genotypes • African & Mediterranean groups • Anopheles gambiae mosquito • 150 bites per year • 100% infection rate in kids • 25% greater survivability = Ss HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  20. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE The Black Death • particularly virulent strain of plague • by 1350, 20,000,000 dead HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  21. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE • arrived in Britain via Bristol in 1349 HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  22. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE • caused by Yersinia pestis • from animal vector to flea to humans • begins in bubonic form, becomes pneumonic form • pneumonic plague spreads from person to person HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  23. FLU QUESTIONS Younger people are more social & mobile Older people immunized by previous exposure to less virulent strains. Viruses mutate in unpredictable ways. Kill the host or leave it immune, therefore it died out. When it resurfaces, less ‘candidates’ available. Still not sequenced, tho’ they do have the DNA from samples at the AFIP. HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  24. FLU PANDEMICS 1918 Spanish Flu: 500,000 in the US, between 20 and 50 million worldwide. Over half young healthy adults. 1957-58 Asian Flu: 70,000 in the US. 1968-69 Hong Kong Flu: 34,000 in the US. 1976 Swine Flu scare 1977 Russian Flu scare 1997,99 Avian Flu scare HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  25. FLU QUESTIONS • Chicken pox/herpes • Varicella-zoster virus (VZC) • “Shingles is sometimes called “herpes zoster” but it is not caused by a herpes virus” • “Part of the Herpes family, for which there are over 100 types” HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  26. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Societal changes • city life stopped • harvests were uncollected • bodies piled up in the streets • no sanitation • no bread baked • famine, lawlessness • houses abandoned HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  27. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE “Cures” • eat lettuce • alternate sleep on left & right sides to keep liver balanced • apply paste of gum resin, white lillies & human excrement • don’t think about it • thin blood with leeches • burn fires to purify the air HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  28. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE “Causes” • moral pollution; 1/3 of Cardinals died • Jewish plot to destroy Christendom • opportunity to get rid of debts, Jews were money lenders • Jews were killed before plague arrived in many towns • image of a witch HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  29. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Results • macabre art becomes common • labor shortage results in end of feudal system • recurring outbreaks last for another 300 years • the Renaissance is born HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  30. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Plague Today • 10-15 cases/yr in the US • 1000-3000 cases worldwide • northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, southern Colorado • California, southern Oregon, far western Nevada HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  31. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Blood Types -- ABO System • A & B alleles are co-dominant • proteins (antigens) on outer surface Genotype Phenotype AA or AA A BB or BO B AB AB OO O HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  32. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Blood Types -- ABO System • Joan Barry, actress • “white slavery” • 1941, 1946 ruling • child support till 18 • “looked like him” • Baby type B • Mother type A • Chaplin type 0 • Supreme Court did not admit blood typing evidence HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  33. A A A O O O AO AO OO AO O O AO AO AO OO CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Blood Types -- ABO System HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  34. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Blood Types -- ABO System • natural immunity • antibodies to other allele • Type O = universal donor (no protein to cause reaction) • Type AB = universal recipient (no antibodies to either allele) Genotype Antibodies AA or AA anti-B BB or BO anti-A AB none OO both HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  35. CO-EVOLUTION OF DISEASE Blood Types and Disease • H-antigen is similar to protein on Yersinia pestis • lives in blood type O individuals longer, gains a foothold • killed huge numbers of blood type O as a result • easily rebounded as a result of heterozygotes HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress

  36. Today type O is ~45% Today type A is ~43% Today type B is ~9% Today type AB is ~ 3%

  37. RECOMMENDED READINGS HUMAN DIVERSITY: Adaptation to Disease Stress