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Mitigation of primary PM emissions Overview of existing technical and non-technical emissions mitigation techniques. M. Amann, J. Cofala, Z. Klimont International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). Projected PM emissions in Europe 2000-2020. EU-15. EU-10. Non-EU.

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slide1

Mitigation of primary PM emissionsOverview of existing technical and non-technical emissions mitigation techniques

M. Amann, J. Cofala, Z. Klimont

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

scope for non technical measures
Scope for non-technical measures
  • Local traffic restrictions
    • For PM2.5, need to reduce overall emissions, not only divert them
    • Consumer’s behavior difficult to model (with RAINS)
  • Accelerated phase-out of solid fuels in home heating
    • E.g., removal of subsidies for local coal heating, or EU structural funds for replacement of heating systems
  • General reduction of carbonaceous fuel consumption through a carbon tax
    • CAFE analysis: illustrative scenario with 90 €/t CO2 carbon price (compared to 20 €/t CO2 in baseline)
slide8
Scope for non-technical measures for PM2.5Effect of a 90 €/to CO2 carbon tax, according to PRIMES calculations

With maximum technically reductions

With current legislation

further cost effective measures to reduce pm emissions in the cafe scenarios for the eu 25 1
Further cost-effective measures to reduce PM emissions in the CAFE scenarios for the EU-25 (1)

Domestic sector (32% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • Dedusters (cyclones, fabric filters) on larger boilers in the commercial sector
  • Accelerated introduction of new boilers in the residential sector (mainly for biomass)
  • For the scenarios with higher ambition levels: non-catalytic inserts for fireplaces and stoves

Transport (26% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • Additional measures for light duty diesel vehicles
  • Additional measures for heavy duty diesel vehicles
  • Low sulphur fuels for national sea traffic and national fishing, which also reduces the PM emissions
further cost effective measures to reduce pm emissions in the cafe scenarios for the eu 25 2
Further cost-effective measures to reduce PM emissions in the CAFE scenarios for the EU-25 (2)

Industrial processes (22% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • High efficiency dedusters to control stack emissions
  • Good practice to control fugitive emissions (for all countries and all ambition levels)

Waste (19% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • Good practice
  • Ban on open burning of agricultural and household waste
further cost effective measures to reduce pm emissions in the cafe scenarios for the eu 25 3
Further cost-effective measures to reduce PM emissions in the CAFE scenarios for the EU-25 (3)

Power plants (10% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • High efficiency dedusters for all existing and new boilers using solid fuels
  • Good housekeeping measures for oil boilers

Industrial combustion (2% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • High efficiency dedusters for all countries and all ambition levels
  • Good housekeeping measures on oil boilers

Conversion sector (1% of CAFE Case A reduction):

  • High efficiency dedusters (electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters) for process sources in refineries and coking plants
  • Good housekeeping for oil fired furnaces
potential for further measures in non eu countries
SNAP 10: Agriculture

SNAP 9: Waste treatment and disposal

SNAP 8: Other mobile sources and machinery

+ non-technical measures!

SNAP 7: Road transport

SNAP 5: Extraction and distribution

SNAP 4: Production processes

SNAP 3: Combustion in manufacturing industry

SNAP 2: Non-industrial combustion plants

SNAP 1: Combustion in energy industries

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

kilotons PM2.5

MTFR

Room for further improvement beyond CLE

Current legislation 2000-2020

Potential for further measures in Non-EU countries
conclusions
Conclusions
  • A wide range of technical and non-technical measures to control primary PM2.5 emissions from all sectors is available
  • Many of them are already applied (or will be applied due to existing legislation), especially in the EU
  • Many of the “current legislation” measures of the EU are not yet considered in the EECCA countries, especially for industrial process emissions
  • Further reductions of primary PM emissions are cost-effective means for improving ambient PM2.5, also in the EU-25
  • Large scope for non-technical measures to reduce PM emissions from small sources (solid fuel combustion), especially in EECCA countries
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