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Milady’s Standard CosmetologyCOSMETOLOGY: THE HISTORY AND OPPORTUNITIES 1 Copyright © 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning,Inc.
WELCOME • Cosmetology is a very rewarding profession. • You may want to be creative, or you may have a desire to help people look their best and feel good about themselves. • You may wish for financial security in your new career path. • You will encounter problems, but you will find solutions. • Ultimately, you will be rewarded.
CLIENTS You play an important role in the lives of your clients. They seek • your expertise. • your artistic vision. • a relaxing and soothing environment. • a trusted professional. Figure 1-1
YOUR CAREER In this demanding career, you must • be a talented hairstylist. • be a personal services expert. • be a businessperson. • be a self-promoter. • be a well-groomed salesperson. • practice sanitation and safety precautions. • have up-to-date knowledge.
REACHING YOUR GOALS • Attend all classes. • Arrive for class early. • Have all necessary materials ready. • Listen attentively to your instructor. • Highlight important points. • Take notes for later review. • Pay close attention during summary and review sessions. • Ask, ask, ask when something is not clear.
EDUCATION • Seek further education; never stop learning. • The industry is always changing. • Keep up with new trends, techniques, products. • Read industry magazines and books. • Attend trade shows. • Enroll in advanced educational classes throughout your career. • Most of all, love what you do, and there are no limits to the possibilities that await you!
HISTORY • Hairstyling/barbering has evolved over centuries as one of the oldest professions in the world. • Cosmetology is a term that comes from the Greek wordkosmetikosmeaning “skilled in the use of cosmetics.” • Cosmetology is the art and science of beautifying and improving skin, nails, and hair, and the study of cosmetics and their applications. • The term barber is derived for the Latin word barba, meaning “the beard or the hair of the beard.”
EGYPTIANS • First to use cosmetics for personal beautification, and in religious ceremonies, when preparing the deceased for burial. • Egyptians wore elaborate hairdos • and cosmetics. • The Egyptians were the first to cultivate beauty. • Barbers serviced the nobility and priesthood of Egypt 6,000 years ago. Figure 1-2
COLORING MATTER • Ancient records reveal that coloring matter made from berries, bark of trees, minerals, insects, nuts, herbs, and leaves was used on the hair, skin, and nails. • Henna (a dye extracted from the leaves of an ornamental shrub) was used by the ancients to give a reddish tint to hair—and still is used today.
HAIRDRESSING • Egyptians saw hairdressing as a form of art, and they wore elaborate wigs and headdresses. • Both Egyptian and Roman women would apply a mixture of soil and water to their hair. They then wrapped their hair on wooden rollers to bake in the sun, thus creating a temporary wave. • In Africa, hair was groomed with carved combs and adorned with beads, clay, and colored bands. • African Masai warriors used braiding extensively to represent their status within the tribe.
NAIL CARE • The first evidence of nail care was prior to 3,000 B.C. in Egypt and China. • Egyptian men and women would stain their nails with red-orange henna. • The color of a person’s nails was a sign of rank. • Kings and queens wore deep red; people of lower rank wore only pale colors. • In China, nails were painted black and red.
SIGNIFICANCE IN HAIRSTYLING • Egyptian, Babylonian, and Roman military commanders would spend hours before battle getting their hair lacquered and curled and their nails painted the same as their lips. • In Rome, women used haircolor to indicate their class in society: Noblewomen tinted red, middle-class women tinted blonde, and the poor women tinted black.
BARBERING • Barbering became identified with medicine. • Barbers figured prominently in the development of surgery as a recognized branch of medical practice. • During medieval times, cosmetology and medicine were taught as combined subjects in English universities. • Barbers performed bloodletting and minor surgery, administered herbs, and later pulled teeth.
BARBERING • In 1450, a law was enacted that separated the practices of barbering and surgery, with the exception of dentistry. • By the late sixteenth century, a law was passed that officially separated the barbers from the surgeons, and hairstyling emerged as an independent profession.
THE BARBER POLE • The barber pole served as the symbol of the barber-surgeon. • The pole represents a staff patients would hold tightly so that the veins in their arm would stand out. • The cap at the bottom represents the basin used to catch the blood. Figure 1-3
THE BARBER POLE • White bandages stained with blood would be hung on the staff to dry and would twist around in the breeze, forming a red and white pattern. • In the color scheme of the barber pole, red represents the blood, blue the veins, and white the bandages. • Modern day barbers have retained this symbol.
THE NINETEENTH CENTURY • This era is marked by research and innovation. • Marcel Grateau (marcel iron) developed the technique of using irons for waving and curling the hair—still known as marcel waving today. • Alexandre F. Godefroy invented the first hot-blast dryer. • In 1890, the first hairdressing academy was opened in Chicago by Brisbois and Federmeyer.
THE TWENTIETH CENTURY • Hairstyling began to follow trends. • Services were available to all classes of people. • People began to choose their styles based on their own needs and desires.
HISTORY OF PERMANENT WAVING • In 1905, Charles Nessler invented a heavily wired machine used to permanently wave the hair. • Long hair was wound from scalp to ends—spiral wrapping. • The metal rods were heated and kept away from the scalp by a complex system of counterbalancing weights, weights suspended from an overhead chandelier mounted on a stand. Figure 1-4
AFTER WORLD WAR I • Women cut their hair into short bobbed styles. • The croquignole wrapping method was introduced: Short hair was wrapped from ends toward the scalp. • In 1931, the preheat method was developed. • In 1932, the machineless method was introduced. • Clients were no longer subjected to the dangers and discomfort of the Nessler machine.
THE COLD WAVE • In 1941, the cold wave was developed. • This perm did not use heat. • Cold waves replaced virtually all other perming methods. • Cold perms, usually referred to as alkaline perms, are very popular today.
MADAM C. J. WALKER • The daughter of former slaves, Madam C. J. Walker transformed herself from an uneducated washerwoman into one of the twentieth century’s most successful entrepreneurs—the most notable success story of the cosmetology industry. • Suffering from a scalp condition, she experimented with products and homemade remedies.
MADAM C. J. WALKER • She began to sell “Madam Walker’s Wonderful Hair Grower,” a formula that she claimed came to her in a dream. • She gave product demonstrations door-to-door throughout the South. • In 1910, Madam Walker moved her company to Indianapolis, where she built a factory, hair salon, and a training school. • She devoted much time and money to the NAACP and YMCA. • She lobbied for antilynching legislation.
MADAM C. J. WALKER • She organized one of the first national business meetings for women. • She is a pioneer of the modern black hair and cosmetic industry. • She commented, “If I have accomplished anything in life it is because I have been willing to work hard.” • In 1988, the U.S. Postal Service issued the Madam C. J. Walker commemorative stamp, the 21st in the Black Heritage Series.
LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY • The cosmetology industry saw more growth and expansion than at any other time in history. • Haircolor that started as henna and vegetable extracts became a multibillion-dollar industry of professional products. • These products create color from blonde to black and everything in between.
LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY • The public’s interest in health and beauty of the skin has grown. • Manicuring, pedicuring, and nail extensions have developed into very popular services.
THE DAY SPA • There has been huge growth of the day spa all over the country. • These day spas offer hair and specialized esthetic services such as • aromatherapy. • hydrotherapy. • massage treatments. • nutritional counseling. • What was once a luxury service for the wealthy has become a routine service for many.
COSMETOLOGY • Cosmetology has changed dramatically over the course of time. • Due to their expanding role, cosmetologists are required to know more than ever and to make continuing education a necessity.
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES • Salon Stylist • Haircolor Specialist • Texture Service Specialist • Wig or Extensions Specialist • Retail Specialist • Skin Care Specialist/ Esthetician • Stylist for TV, Movies, or Theater • Makeup Artist • Nail Technician/Manicurist • Day Spa Stylist or Technician • Salon Manager • Salon Owner • Product Educator • Cosmetic Chemist
CAREER OPPORTUNITIES • Session Stylist • Styles Director/Artistic Director • Design Team Member • Platform Artist • Competition Champion • Educator • Writer • State Board Member
SUMMARY • The world of cosmetology offers vast opportunities. • The salon industry grosses $50 billion a year in revenue. • To get the most out of your career, you must make the most of your education. • Every lesson has something to teach if you can maintain an open mind and positive attitude. • Your license will unlock countless doors. • Your education and personal desire for success will really launch your career.