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Hypercar - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Pollution Prevention Michelle Bates. Hypercar. What is a Hypercar?. Ultralight, Low-Drag, Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) 2 Sources of energy: Fuel cells, gas turbines, diesels, lean burn gasoline engines Flywheels, batteries, ultracapacitors 2 Drive trains

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Presentation Transcript
what is a hypercar
What is a Hypercar?
  • Ultralight, Low-Drag, Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV)
  • 2 Sources of energy:
    • Fuel cells, gas turbines, diesels, lean burn gasoline engines
    • Flywheels, batteries, ultracapacitors
  • 2 Drive trains
    • Internal Combustion Engine- gas or alt. fuels
    • Battery driven electric
  • Conventional
    • Internal combustion engine coupled to wheels through the transmission, driveshaft, etc.
  • Hybrid-Electric
    • Engine (or other power source) generates electricity from fuel, which then powers electric motors that turn the wheels
hypercar strategies to reduce energy losses
Hypercar Strategies to Reduce Energy Losses
  • Ultralight
    • 1994 Average U.S. Passenger car 1439 kg
    • 2000-2005 Hypercar (4-5 seat) 521 kg
  • Low Aerodynamic Drag
  • Hybrid-Electric Drivesystem
  • Efficient Accessories
  • Composites
    • Embed strong reinforcing fibers in a supporting "matrix" of polymer
  • Advanced Composites
    • Long or continuous reinforcing fibers such as carbon or aramid (kevlar) in addition to glass
advanced composite materials

50-65% reduction in weight


Design Flexibility





Advanced Composite Materials
low drag aerodynamic design
Low-Drag Aerodynamic Design
  • Smooth underbody
  • Low-angle windshields
  • Tapered rear end
  • Minimized body seams
  • Aerodynamically designed air intakes, suspension, and wheel wells
  • Result: 40-50% decrease in drag
rolling resistance
1/3 engine output lost


lightweight car

tire improvements

improved wheel bearing and brake design

Reduction in rolling resistance by 50-80%

Rolling Resistance
hybrid electric drive

Engine with generator to supply electricity for battery pack and electric motor

No mechanical connection

Power transferred electrically to wheel motor


Direct mechanical connection between hybrid power unit and wheels

Electric motor drives the wheels


Hybrid-Electric Drive
hybrid electric drive14
Generate electricity from the fuel, powers wheel motors

Electric motors can recover part of the braking energy

Hybrid-Electric Drive

Wheel Motor

hybrid electric drive15
Hybrid-Electric Drive
  • Large decrease in engine size
    • reduces weight, cost, fuel consumption
  • Drive system efficiency doubled
efficient accessories
Efficient Accessories
  • Avoid heat buildup by using:
    • Insulation, special heat-reflecting glass, solar-powered vent fans
    • Innovative cooling and dehumidification systems
    • Improved headlights and taillights
  • More efficient electronics and interior lighting systems
whole systems approach
Whole Systems Approach
  • Optimizing parts individually results in inefficiency overall
  • Hypercar is cost effective when the entire system is designed for efficiency
hypercar safety
Hypercar Safety
  • Advanced composites
  • Smaller propulsion system
    • room at both ends of the car for materials dedicated to crash energy management
  • Front and side airbags, harnesses with pretensioners and stress-limiters, padding, active headrests
pollution prevention
Pollution Prevention
  • Hypercars would go roughly 2-4 times farther on a unit of fuel
    • decreased overall carbon dioxide emissions
    • lower emissions per vehicle mile traveled
  • Alternative fuels
life cycle assessment
Life Cycle Assessment
  • Advanced Composites are durable
    • won’t rust, dent or chip
  • Total weight is much less, so there is less pure waste produced
current status
Current Status
  • Hypercars do not currently exist
  • Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) do exist
  • Chrysler, Ford and GM
    • Year 2000 prototype HEVs
    • Year 2003 release HEVs on the U.S. market
  • Department of Energy HEV Propulsion Program
    • Funds 50% of development costs
toyota s hybrid electric prius sedan
Japanese market for one year

Not ultralight (weighs 330 lbs. more)

66 miles per gallon

Emissions reduced to 1/10th the Japanese legal requirement

U.S. market year 2000

Toyota’s Hybrid-Electric Prius Sedan
future projections
Future Projections
  • Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs)
    • One tenth of new cars sold in five U.S. states by 2004
  • Half of all vehicles Hypercars by 2020
    • Overall fuel consumption 25 percent less than today's level
battery electric cars vs hybrid electric cars
Battery Electric

Run on electricity stored in onboard batteries

Gasoline contains 100 times more energy per pound than batteries

Several thousand pounds of batteries (mass compounding)

Range less than 150 miles

Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid-Electric Cars
battery electric cars vs hybrid electric cars28

Batteries must be replaced every few years

Batteries cost $2000-$15,000 each

Batteries not recyclable

Emission shifting

Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid-Electric Cars

GM’s EV1

battery electric cars vs hybrid electric cars29
Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid-Electric Cars
  • Hybrid-Electric Cars
    • Wheels powered by electric motor or motors, convert fuel into energy as they go
    • Alternative fuel sources (Ex: renewable fuel cells)
    • Decrease carbon dioxide emissions
    • Increased engine and drive systems efficiency
    • Mass decompounding
economic impacts the winners
Economic Impacts: The Winners
  • Makers of power electronics, microelectronics, advanced electric motors and small engines, alternative power plants and storage devices, and software
  • Composite materials, structures, and tooling and manufacturing equipment suppliers
  • Providers of polymers, fibers, coatings, and adhesives for the composites industry
  • Aerospace firms
economic impacts losers
Economic Impacts: Losers
  • Iron and steel industries (a Hypercar has 92% less iron and steel)
  • Heavy machine tools
  • Oil for motor fuel
  • Automotive fluids and lubricants
for more information
For More Information
  • The Hypercar Center
    • www.hypercarcenter.org
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program
    • www.hev.doe.gov
  • Rocky Mountain Institute
    • www.rmi.org
  • Toyota Prius
    • www.toyota.com