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FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS GCP/SYR/006/ITA Implications for the Agricultural Sector of Recent Developments in Private and Public Agricultural Marketing and Processing Activities in Syria by Daniele Rama . The staff:. Intl consultant: Daniele Rama

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FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANISATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

GCP/SYR/006/ITA

Implications for the Agricultural Sectorof Recent Developments in Private and Public

Agricultural Marketing and Processing Activities

in Syria

by

Daniele Rama


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The staff:

  • Intl consultant: Daniele Rama

  • Natl consultants: Mohammed Zein El Din, MARR Barakat Chaheen, MI

  • Trainees: Waffika Hussni, Muna Hallak, Fayez Mansour, Usama El Sa’di, Mohannad Melhem

  • (+ about 70 people more…)

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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A general hint:

The study is focused on “non strategic products” and, when analyzing the mechanisms of vertical co-ordination, particularly on fresh and processed fruits and vegetables and on dairy products.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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Four basic questions:

1. are there suitable pre-marketing conditions for the development of an efficient supply chain?

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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Four basic questions:

1. are there suitable pre-marketing conditions for the development of an efficient supply chain?

2. who are the agro-food operators and how do they perform in marketing competition?

Agro-food marketing in Syria


Four basic questions6 l.jpg
Four basic questions:

1. are there suitable pre-marketing conditions for the development of an efficient supply chain?

2. who are the agro-food operators and how do they perform in marketing competition?

3. how do vertical co-ordination mechanisms work?

Agro-food marketing in Syria


Four basic questions7 l.jpg
Four basic questions:

1. are there suitable pre-marketing conditions for the development of an efficient supply chain?

2. who are the agro-food operators and how do they perform in marketing competition?

3. how do vertical co-ordination mechanisms work?

4. which are the policy implications?

Agro-food marketing in Syria


Four basic questions8 l.jpg
Four basic questions:

  • 1. are there suitable pre-marketing conditions for the development of an efficient supply chain?

    2. who are the agro-food operators and how do they perform in marketing competition?

    3. how do vertical co-ordination mechanisms work?

    4. which are the policy implications?

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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1. Are there suitable pre-marketing conditions for the development of an efficient supply chain?

1.1 slow, but significant, change in consumption patterns;

1.2 quantity-oriented development in agriculture;

1.3 low propensity to export and strong protection from import;

1.4 limitations in currency convertibility and access to credit;

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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1. Are there suitable pre-marketing conditions for the development of an efficient supply chain?

1.5 especially through input and credit allotment, the agricultural planning system crucially affects farmers decisions;

1.6 agricultural and food prices are subject to constraints more or less severe;

1.7 limited effects of the “new” policy for private investment.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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Four basic questions: development of an efficient supply chain?

1. are there suitable pre-marketing conditions for the development of an efficient supply chain?

  • 2. who are the agro-food operators and how do they perform in marketing competition?

    3. how do vertical co-ordination mechanisms work?

    4. which are the policy implications?

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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2. Who are the agro-food operators and how do they perform in marketing competition?

2.1 agricultural co-operatives: not a supply concentration tool;

2.2 agricultural bank: almost unique operator in agricultural credit and main input supplier;

2.3 state agricultural companies: economic units completely separate from farmers, mostly product oriented;

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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2. Who are the agro-food operators and how do they perform in marketing competition?

2.4 state food companies: non-independent decision makers, they are in a difficult position in order to compete with private companies and can survive only through their access to protected markets;

2.5 private food companies: basing their competition on product differentiation and innovation as well as new retail channels; difficulties in the establishment of contractual relations with farmers and in raising capital;

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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2. Who are the agro-food operators and how do they perform in marketing competition?

2.6 traders: often a long sequence of intermediate operators between the agricultural producers and consumers; in a non-structured agricultural sector, this sequence represents the only way to have an adjustment between demand and supply;

2.7 state distribution companies: less important and declining role than in the production and processing sectors.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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Four basic questions: in marketing competition?

1. are there suitable pre-marketing conditions for the development of an efficient supply chain?

2. who are the agro-food operators and how do they perform in marketing competition?

  • 3. how do vertical co-ordination mechanisms work?

    4. which are the policy implications?

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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3. How do vertical co-ordination mechanisms work? in marketing competition?

3.a fresh products:

3.a.1 lack of a market information system;

3.a.2 poor sorting/grading, especially for the internal market;

3.a.3 middleman commission (apparently) higher than the official level.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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3. How do vertical co-ordination mechanisms work? in marketing competition?

3.b processed products:

3.b.1 informal sector is dominant;

3.b.2 processing as an appendix of fresh products market;

3.b.3 seldom contracts between farmers and processors.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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3. How do vertical co-ordination mechanisms work? in marketing competition?

3.c all products:

3.c.1 traditional retail is by far the most important marketing channel (with exceptions for differentiated products);

3.c.2 collective consumers are often vertically related to state production and processing companies.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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Four basic questions: in marketing competition?

1. are there suitable pre-marketing conditions for the development of an efficient supply chain?

2. who are the agro-food operators and how do they perform in marketing competition?

3. how do vertical co-ordination mechanisms work and how can they be improved?

  • 4. which are the policy implications?

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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4. Which are the policy implications? in marketing competition?

4.a some general concepts:

4.a.1 solve internal contradictions;

4.a.2 remove obstacles;

4.a.3 develop “push” factors.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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4. Which are the policy implications? in marketing competition?

4.b tentative action lines:

4.b.1 horizontal and vertical co-ordination:

  • reorientation of farmers co-operatives;

  • legislative framework and incentives for integration contracts.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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4. Which are the policy implications? in marketing competition?

4.b tentative action lines:

4.b.2 services implementation:

  • market information service;

  • services for export;

  • more “classical” services.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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4. Which are the policy implications? in marketing competition?

4.b tentative action lines:

4.b.3 removing blocking factors:

  • liberalization of pricing system;

  • better currency and credit access;

  • import restriction relaxation.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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4. Which are the policy implications? in marketing competition?

4.b tentative action lines:

4.b.4 improvement of business environment:

  • removal of administrative uncertainty;

  • ensuring guarantees for investments.

Agro-food marketing in Syria


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4. Which are the policy implications? in marketing competition?

4.b tentative action lines:

4.b.5 corporativization of State agricultural and food companies:

  • adoption of innovative management and investment principles;

  • opening to private capital.

Agro-food marketing in Syria