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CGS 3269 COMPUTER SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE Course Website: http://www.cs.ucf.edu/courses/cgs3269.spr2002. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION. DIFFERENCE IN PERCEPTION BETWEEN MAN AND MACHINE. HOW DO YOU MAP “PROBLEM SPACE” TO “MACHINE SPACE”? TWO DIFFERENT APPROACHES EXIST: TRANSLATION INTERPRETATION.

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CGS 3269 COMPUTER SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE Course Website: cs.ucf/courses/cgs3269.spr2002


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    1. CGS 3269COMPUTER SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURECourse Website: http://www.cs.ucf.edu/courses/cgs3269.spr2002

    2. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION DIFFERENCE IN PERCEPTION BETWEEN MAN AND MACHINE. HOW DO YOU MAP “PROBLEM SPACE” TO “MACHINE SPACE”? TWO DIFFERENT APPROACHES EXIST: TRANSLATION INTERPRETATION

    3. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION • TRANSLATION: USER WRITES A PROGRAM, WHICH IS THEN TRANSLATED BY MACHINE INTO A “MACHINE-FRIENDLY” PROGRAM AND EXECUTED. • INTERPRETATION: MACHINE INTERPRETS EACH INSTRUCTION INDIVIDUALLY. THIS TECHNIQUE DOES NOT REQUIRE GENERATION OF A “MACHINE-FRIENDLY” PROGRAM; INSTEAD “MACHINE-FRIENDLY” INSTRUCTION(S) ARE GENERATED

    4. COMPUTER ABSTRACTION

    5. LEVEL 0: DIGITAL LOGIC LEVEL • GATES: DIGITAL DEVICES (AND, OR) MODELED FROM ANALOG COMPONENTS (TRANSISTORS) • GATES MODEL 1–BIT MEMORY (CAN STORE 0 OR 1) AND ALU (DISCUSSED LATER) • REGISTERS ARE MODELED FROM 4, 8, 16, 32 BIT MEMORY

    6. LEVEL 1: MICROARCHITECTURE LEVEL LOCAL MEMORY IS FORMED FROM COLLECTION OF REGISTERS (TYPICALLY 8 TO 32 DEPENDING ON ARCHITECTURE) GATES FORM ALU (ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT) CAPABLE OF ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS REGISTERS ARE CONNECTED TO THE ALU TO FORM THE DATA PATH, OVER WHICH THE DATA FLOWS DATA PATH OPERATION IS TO TAKE DATA FROM ONE OR MORE REGISTERS TO THE ALU, WHERE IT IS PROCESSED AND RETURN RESULT TO REGISTER(S)

    7. MICROPROGRAM • CONTROLS OPERATION OF THE DATA PATH OR DATA PATH CONTROL CAN BE HARDWARE BASED

    8. LEVEL 2: INSTRUCTION SET ARCHITECTURE LEVEL MACHINE’S INSTRUCTION SET INSTRUCTIONS CARRIED OUT “INTERPRETIVELY” BY THE MICROPROGRAM OR HARDWARE

    9. LEVEL 3: OPERATING SYSTEM MACHINE LEVEL • LEVEL 4: ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE LEVEL (NOTE THE SHIFT FROM INTREPRETATION TO TRANSLATION) • LEVEL 5: PROBLEM-ORIENTED LANGUAGE LEVEL

    10. HISTORY OF COMPUTING • ZEROTH GENERATION – MECHANICAL COMPUTERS • FIRST GENERATION – VACUUM TUBES • SECOND GENERATION – TRANSISTORS • THIRD GENERATION – INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

    11. HISTORY OF COMPUTING • FOURTH GENERATION – VLSI • FUTURE TRENDS (QUANTUM COMPUTING?)

    12. COMPUTER FAMILIES • DESKTOPS/SERVERS/LAPTOPS – (WINDOWS/LINUX BASED) • INTEL, AMD • DESKTOPS/LAPTOPS – (MACINTOSH) • MOTOROLA

    13. COMPUTER FAMILIES • WORKSTATIONS/SERVERS – (SUN OS, SOLARIS BASED) • SPARC • CUSTOM PROCESSORS FOR MOBILE, EMBEDDED, LOW POWER APPLICATIONS

    14. COMPONENTS OF PC ARCHITECTURE • CPU • MEMORY • INPUT/OUTPUT • DISK STORAGE • PROGRAMS

    15. NUMBER SYSTEMS • BINARY • OCTAL • DECIMAL • HEXADECIMAL