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CGS 3269 COMPUTER SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE Course Website: http://www.cs.ucf.edu/courses/cgs3269.spr2002. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION. DIFFERENCE IN PERCEPTION BETWEEN MAN AND MACHINE. HOW DO YOU MAP “PROBLEM SPACE” TO “MACHINE SPACE”? TWO DIFFERENT APPROACHES EXIST: TRANSLATION INTERPRETATION.

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cgs 3269 computer systems architecture course website http www cs ucf edu courses cgs3269 spr2002

CGS 3269COMPUTER SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURECourse Website: http://www.cs.ucf.edu/courses/cgs3269.spr2002

computer organization

COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

DIFFERENCE IN PERCEPTION BETWEEN MAN AND MACHINE. HOW DO YOU MAP “PROBLEM SPACE” TO “MACHINE SPACE”?

TWO DIFFERENT APPROACHES EXIST:

TRANSLATION

INTERPRETATION

computer organization3
COMPUTER ORGANIZATION
  • TRANSLATION: USER WRITES A PROGRAM, WHICH IS THEN TRANSLATED BY MACHINE INTO A “MACHINE-FRIENDLY” PROGRAM AND EXECUTED.
  • INTERPRETATION: MACHINE INTERPRETS EACH INSTRUCTION INDIVIDUALLY. THIS TECHNIQUE DOES NOT REQUIRE GENERATION OF A “MACHINE-FRIENDLY” PROGRAM; INSTEAD “MACHINE-FRIENDLY” INSTRUCTION(S) ARE GENERATED
slide5
LEVEL 0: DIGITAL LOGIC LEVEL
    • GATES: DIGITAL DEVICES (AND, OR) MODELED FROM ANALOG COMPONENTS (TRANSISTORS)
    • GATES MODEL 1–BIT MEMORY (CAN STORE 0 OR 1) AND ALU (DISCUSSED LATER)
    • REGISTERS ARE MODELED FROM 4, 8, 16, 32 BIT MEMORY
slide6
LEVEL 1: MICROARCHITECTURE LEVEL

LOCAL MEMORY IS FORMED FROM COLLECTION OF REGISTERS (TYPICALLY 8 TO 32 DEPENDING ON ARCHITECTURE)

GATES FORM ALU (ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT) CAPABLE OF ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS

REGISTERS ARE CONNECTED TO THE ALU TO FORM THE DATA PATH, OVER WHICH THE DATA FLOWS

DATA PATH OPERATION IS TO TAKE DATA FROM ONE OR MORE REGISTERS TO THE ALU, WHERE IT IS PROCESSED AND RETURN RESULT TO REGISTER(S)

microprogram
MICROPROGRAM
  • CONTROLS OPERATION OF THE DATA PATH

OR

DATA PATH CONTROL

CAN BE HARDWARE BASED

level 2 instruction set architecture level

LEVEL 2: INSTRUCTION SET ARCHITECTURE LEVEL

MACHINE’S INSTRUCTION SET

INSTRUCTIONS CARRIED OUT “INTERPRETIVELY” BY THE MICROPROGRAM OR HARDWARE

slide9
LEVEL 3: OPERATING SYSTEM MACHINE LEVEL
  • LEVEL 4: ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE LEVEL (NOTE THE SHIFT FROM INTREPRETATION TO TRANSLATION)
  • LEVEL 5: PROBLEM-ORIENTED LANGUAGE LEVEL
history of computing
HISTORY OF COMPUTING
  • ZEROTH GENERATION – MECHANICAL COMPUTERS
  • FIRST GENERATION – VACUUM TUBES
  • SECOND GENERATION – TRANSISTORS
  • THIRD GENERATION – INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
history of computing11
HISTORY OF COMPUTING
  • FOURTH GENERATION – VLSI
  • FUTURE TRENDS (QUANTUM COMPUTING?)
computer families
COMPUTER FAMILIES
  • DESKTOPS/SERVERS/LAPTOPS – (WINDOWS/LINUX BASED)
    • INTEL, AMD
  • DESKTOPS/LAPTOPS – (MACINTOSH)
    • MOTOROLA
computer families13
COMPUTER FAMILIES
  • WORKSTATIONS/SERVERS – (SUN OS, SOLARIS BASED)
    • SPARC
  • CUSTOM PROCESSORS FOR MOBILE, EMBEDDED, LOW POWER APPLICATIONS
components of pc architecture
COMPONENTS OF PC ARCHITECTURE
  • CPU
  • MEMORY
  • INPUT/OUTPUT
  • DISK STORAGE
  • PROGRAMS
number systems
NUMBER SYSTEMS
  • BINARY
  • OCTAL
  • DECIMAL
  • HEXADECIMAL
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