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CMSC 202. Lesson 5 Functions I. Warmup. Use setw() to print the following (in tabular format) Fred Flintstone Barney Rubble Bugs Bunny Daffy Duck. Announcements. CMSC Help Center is now open! Location: ITE 201E Announcement on BB with link for hours Project 1 is out

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CMSC 202


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    1. CMSC 202 Lesson 5 Functions I

    2. Warmup • Use setw() to print the following (in tabular format) Fred Flintstone Barney Rubble Bugs Bunny Daffy Duck

    3. Announcements • CMSC Help Center is now open! • Location: ITE 201E • Announcement on BB with link for hours • Project 1 is out • Design due this Sunday • Homework 1 should be graded by Tuesday (~1 week after due)

    4. C++ Functions • Predefined Functions • cmath library • sqrt(x) – takes the sqrt of x • pow(x, n) – computes xn • cstdlib library • abs(x) – integer absolute value • exit(x) – end program • assert library • assert(z) – ends program if z is false • Tip: pay attention to the parameter types for these! The libraries are VERY particular

    5. Functions • You are familiar with functions that… • Return a value • Do not return a value (void) • Have parameters (primitives, structs, arrays) • Have no parameters • Call other functions

    6. Functions • New stuff • Scope (partial review…) • Parameters • Call by value • Call by reference • Constant • Default • Function return types • Function overloading

    7. Functions - Design • Abstraction • Hiding the details… • Do not need to know how a function works to use it • Pre-conditions • Comment describing constraints on parameter values to ensure proper function execution • Post-conditions • Comment describing state of the program after function execution • VERY IMPORTANT!!!

    8. Pre/Post-condition Example //------------------------------------------------------ // Function: ShowInterest // PreCondition: // balance is a nonnegative savings account balance // rate is the interest rate expressed as a percent // such as 5 for 5% // PostCondition: // the amount of interest for the given balance at the // given rate is displayed to cout. // if the parameters are invalid, "No Interest" is displayed //------------------------------------------------------- void ShowInterest( double balance, double rate ) { if (balance >= 0 && rate >=0) { // code to calculate and display interest } else { cout << "No Interest\n"; } }

    9. Preconditions • How to write a good precondition? • Describe assumptions/limitations of each parameter • Ex: denominator cannot be equal to zero • Describe assumptions/limitations of the program state • Ex: global array “students” must have at least one student in it • What must the function do? • Test every precondition!!! • Ex: if (denominator == 0) cerr << “Error: Denom == 0” << endl; • Ex:if (NbrOfStudents < 1) cerr << “Error: NbrOfStud < 1” << endl;

    10. Preconditions • How to deal with unmet preconditions? • Handle the error by returning a “safe” value or printing an error • Prefer NOT to print errors from functions! • Return a status value • Throw an exception (later…) • Last resort: Abort the program (exit or assert)

    11. Postconditions • How to write a good postcondition? • Describe all possible message from the function • Ex: Error message is printed if preconditions are violated • Describe all possible return values • Ex: Return value is 0 if an error is encountered, otherwise, a positive value representing the current rate calculated is returned • What must the function do? • Functionality must match postcondition claims!

    12. Scope • Area of a program where a variable is defined • Denoted with { } • Can be nested • Types of Scope • Global Scope • Outside of all functions • Entire file can use global variables • Local Scope • Within a pair of { } • Only other code within the { } can use these • If name conflict, overrides the outer-scope • Getting back to global? • :: scope resolution operator • Accesses global variable if name conflict

    13. Scope Issues int a = 1; int doubleVal(int a) { return 2 * a; } int main() { a = doubleVal(a + 7); { char a = ‘a’; a = a + 1; // ‘a’ + 1 => ‘b’ ::a = ::a + 1; // 16 + 1 => 17 } return 0; }

    14. Scope Rules • Variables can be declared anywhere • Declare them when you need them… • Global variables should always be constant! • Not all constants should be global • For loops – initializer list is scoped inside the for loop • for (int i = 0; …) // i is INSIDE the loop • Try to avoid reusing variable names…

    15. Function Parameters • Argument • Value/variable passed IN to a function • Parameter (or Formal Parameter) • Variable name INSIDE the function • Call-by-Value • Changes to the parameter do not affect the argument • Syntax: retTypefuncName( typevarName, … ){ … }

    16. Call by Value Example Allocate b : 7 void mystery(int b) { b++; cout << b << endl; } int main() { int a = 7; mystery(a); cout << a << endl; return 0; } Copy value Allocate a : 7

    17. Call by Reference • Call by Reference • Changes to the parameter change the argument • Function declares that it will change argument • Share memory • Essentially a pointer • Syntax: retTypefuncName( type &varName, … ){ … } Look familiar? Works “backwards”

    18. Call by Reference Example void mystery(int &b) { b++; cout << b << endl; } int main() { int a = 7; mystery(a); cout << a << endl; return 0; } Use this space b: Allocate a : 7

    19. Value versus Reference? • Why choose value or reference? • Value • Data going in, nothing coming out • Only one piece of data coming out (return it!) • Reference • Need to modify a value • Need to return more than one piece of data • Passed an array (by default are by reference, no ‘&’ needed)

    20. Call-by-Reference – Issue! • What happens in the following? void mystery(int &b) { b++; cout << b << endl; } int main() { mystery(6); return 0; }

    21. Practice • What is printed in the following code block? void mystery(int a, int &b) { a++; b++; cout << a << “ “ << b << endl; } int main() { int a = 1; int b = 1; mystery(a, b); mystery(b, a); mystery(a, a); cout << a << “ “ << b << endl; return 0; }

    22. Challenge • Write a function named “getInfo” • Accepts 3 parameters: • First name • Last name • Age • Ask the user to give you these 3 pieces of information • Write a main function that will use getInfo to retrieve this information • Think about: • Will you use value or reference?