chapter 2 c omputer s ystems
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
CHAPTER 2 C OMPUTER S YSTEMS

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 40

CHAPTER 2 C OMPUTER S YSTEMS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 311 Views
  • Uploaded on

CHAPTER 2 C OMPUTER S YSTEMS. 1946-1959. E VOLUTION OF C OMPUTER S YSTEMS. First Generation of Computers. Vacuum tubes. Page 24. 1946-1959. 1957-1963. E VOLUTION OF C OMPUTER S YSTEMS. Second Generation of Computers. Vacuum tubes Transistors. Page 24. 1946-1959. 1957-1963.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'CHAPTER 2 C OMPUTER S YSTEMS' - Angelica


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 2 c omputer s ystems
CHAPTER 2

COMPUTER SYSTEMS

e volution of c omputer s ystems
1946-1959EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

First Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes

Page 24

e volution of c omputer s ystems3
1946-1959

1957-1963

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Second Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes
  • Transistors

Page 24

e volution of c omputer s ystems4
1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Third Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes
  • Transistors
  • Integrated circuits

Page 25

e volution of c omputer s ystems5
1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

1980 - present

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Fourth Generation of Computers

  • Vacuum tubes
  • Transistors
  • Integrated circuits
  • VLSI (very-large-scale integrated) circuits

Page 25

e volution of c omputer s ystems6
1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

1980 - present

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

The Development of Minicomputers

Data General

DEC

Hewlett-Packard

IBM

Page 26

e volution of c omputer s ystems7
1946-1959

1957-1963

1964-1979

1980 - present

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

The Development of Microcomputers

Apple

IBM PC

1981

Page 26

slide9
Page 26-27

Table 2.1 Evolution of Intel Microprocessor

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems10
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Underlying Structure

Page 28

Figure 2.4 Logical Structure of Digital Computers

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems12
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output

Terminal

  • Simpler than a PC
  • Designed strictly for input and output
  • Has keyboard and screen
  • Does not have a processor
  • Connected to computer with telecommunication line
  • Allows user to key data directly into computer

Page 28

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems13
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output

Terminal

  • Special types:
    • Point-of-sale (retail)
    • ATMs (banking)

Page 28

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems14
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output

  • Common input methods:
    • Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) – used to process bank checks
    • Optical character recognition (OCR) – directly scans typed, printed, or handwritten material
    • Imaging – inputs digital form of documents and photos
    • Bar code labeling – scans bar codes on packages or products, and reads into computer

Page 29

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems15
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output

  • Common output methods:
    • Print – output to paper using various types of printers
    • Computer output microfilm (COM) – microfilm generated for archive copies in small space
    • Voice response units – computer recognizes input, generates verbal response messages

Page 29

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems16
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Input/Output

Of interest …

Multimedia –

relatively new term for computer input and output in the form of text, graphics, sound, still images, animations, and/or video

Page 29

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems18
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Memory

Memory

  • All data flows to and from memory
  • Divided into cells:
    • Each has a unique address
    • Memory cell types:
      • Byte – stores one character of data
      • Word – stores two or more characters of data

Page 31

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems19
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Bits and Coding Schemes

  • Each memory cell is a set of circuits
  • Each circuit is on or off (represented by 1 or 0)
  • Each circuit corresponds to a bit (binary digit)
  • Most computers – 8 bits (circuits) represents a character (byte)
  • 2 common bit coding schemes used today:
    • ASCII
    • EBCDIC

Page 32

slide20
Bits and Coding Schemes

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Page 32

Figure 2.4 Computer Coding Schemes

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems22
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Arithmetic/Logical Unit

  • Consists of VLSI circuits on a silicon chip
  • Carries out:
    • arithmetic – add, subtract, multiply, divide …
    • logical operations – comparing two numbers

Page 33

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems24
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files

  • When power is off, everything stored in memory is lost
  • Computer files are used to store data long term
  • File storage devices:
    • Magnetic tape drives, disk drives, floppy drives
    • Optical CD or DVD drives

Page 33

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems25
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files

  • Sequential access files
    • Usually stored on magnetic tape drives
  • Direct access files
    • Stored on Direct Access Storage Devices (DASD) - magnetic disk drives

Page 34

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems26
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files

  • Types of DASD
    • Fixed (hard) drives

Page 34

Figure 2.7 Diagram of a Magnetic Disk Drive

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems27
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files

  • Types of DASD
    • Removable:
      • Floppy drives
      • Zip drives
      • Newest: portable DASD for PCs – keychain drive

Page 34

Figure 2.8 Iomega’s Mini USB Keychain Drive

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems28
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Computer Files

  • Newer type of DASD
    • Optical Disk Storage
      • CD-ROM 700 megabytes read-only
      • CD-R recordable
      • CD-RW rewritable
      • DVD-ROM 4.7 gigabytes read-only
      • DVD-R recordable
      • DVD-RW rewritable

Page 36

b asic c omponents of c omputer s ystems30
BASIC COMPONENTSOF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Control Unit

  • Controls computer to take advantage of speed and capacity of other components
  • Directed by list of operations (program) that tells control unit what to do
  • Uses the stored-program concept

Page 36

t he s tored p rogram c oncept
THE STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT
  • Program – list of what computer needs to do for an application
  • Instruction – each individual step or operation in a program
  • Control unit – carries out one step or instruction at a time at electronic speed

Page 37

t he s tored p rogram c oncept32
THE STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT

Note:One of the primary measures of power of computers is the number of instructions it can execute in a given period

MIPS – millions of instructions per second executed by the control unit

MFLOPS – millions of floating point operations per second

Page 38

t he s tored p rogram c oncept33
THE STORED-PROGRAM CONCEPT

Top Seven Desktop PCs – Power System

Page 39

Table 2.2 Benchmarking

e xtensions to the b asic m odel
EXTENSIONS TO THE BASIC MODEL

Communications within

the Computer System

Terminals

Magnetic

Tape Units

Magnetic

Disk Units

Page 40

Figure 2.9 Data Channels and Controllers

e xtensions to the b asic m odel35
EXTENSIONS TO THE BASIC MODEL

Cache Memory

  • High-speed storage to temporarily hold data from main memory waiting to be processed
  • Entire blocks of data moved at one time into cache
  • Enables CPU to execute much faster
  • Also incorporated into DASD controllers

Page 40

Figure 2.10 Cache Memory

e xtensions to the b asic m odel36
EXTENSIONS TO THE BASIC MODEL

Multiple Processor Configurations

  • Multiprocessor
  • Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP)
  • Vector facility
  • Parallel processor (PP)
  • Massively parallel processor (MPP)

Page 41-42

t ypes of c omputer s ystems
TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Microcomputers

Page 43-44

t ypes of c omputer s ystems38
TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Workstation/Midrange Systems

Page 44-48

t ypes of c omputer s ystems39
TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Mainframe Computers

Page 48-49

t ypes of c omputer s ystems40
TYPES OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Supercomputers

Page 49

ad