autobiographical memory across the life span l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Autobiographical memory across the life-span PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Autobiographical memory across the life-span

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 34

Autobiographical memory across the life-span - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 855 Views
  • Uploaded on

Autobiographical memory across the life-span study by M. Linton on autobiographical remembering (1986): + based on diary with two events per day with separate index cards for each event + conducted over 14 years + examination of recall

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Autobiographical memory across the life-span' - Angelica


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
autobiographical memory across the life span
Autobiographical memory across the life-span
  • study by M. Linton on autobiographical remembering (1986):
  • + based on diary with two events per day with separate index cards for each event
  • + conducted over 14 years
  • + examination of recall
  • -> examination of recalled events shows that after approx. 1 year repeated episodes cannot be remembered well individually
  • -> process results often in recovery of merged general events(see Conway model)
  • Schacter: blurring of engram due to interference
  • BUT unique episodes can often still be retained well
autobiographical memory across the life span2
Autobiographical memory across the life-span
  • other important result in study by M. Linton :
  • + number of cues that can elicit memory for uniqueepisodes becomes smaller as time passes
  • -> special feeling of sudden remembering when specific cue does elicit seemingly forgotten memory
  • -> feeling also reflected in ease (response time) in which episodes can be remembered
  • -> shows that some changes over timeare related toaccessibility (not all changes in availability)
autobiographical memory across the life span3
Autobiographical memory across the life-span
  • implications of finding on changes in accessibility:
  • different retrieval strategies required to recover more remote memories
  • -> stronger reliance on reconstructive processes
  • e.g. what did you do on your last birthday?
  • vs
  • what did you do on your birthday 5 years ago?
is autobiographical recall always accurate
Is autobiographical recall always accurate?
  • diary study by Barclay in graduate students with brief descriptions of episodes
  • + recognition memory test with systematic variations in foils (changes in details of episode vs episode from other person)
  • -> with increasing delay ( 1 – 30 months)
  • increase in false recognition responses to episodes changed in detail
  • ->but other persons’ episodes are hardly ever recognized as own
  • -> suggests preservation of gist
is autobiographical recall always accurate5
Is autobiographical recall always accurate?
  • implications of diary study by Barclay:
  • “ not a complete fabrication of life events; fundamental integrity to one’s autobiographical recollections”
  • -> view also supported by research on siblings’ accounts of life events
  • BUT emotional evaluation and personal meaning of episodes and events may change over the years
  • e.g. memory for break-up episode
  • -> creation of life stories
autobiographical memory across the life span6
Autobiographical memory across the life-span
  • what are your most vivid autobiographical memories of unique events?
  • -> most people report personal events with great emotional significance
  • -> specific content depends on age at time of retrieval
  • study on most vivid recollections in university students
  • (Rubin & Kozin, 1984):
  • - accidents and injuries
  • - sports victory
  • - meeting partner for romantic relationship
  • study shows that vividness closely linked to
    • + personal importance
  • + personal consequentiality
  • + emotional response at time of event
effects of mood and emotion on episodic memory
Effects of mood and emotion on episodic memory
  • definition of emotion (and mood for present purpose):
  • + transitorystates of subjective feeling that vary in intensity and quality
  • e.g., happiness, surprise, sadness, anger etc.
  • + associated with physiological changes in arousal (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, breathing)
  • + related to current situation-specific personal goals and evaluations of people, objects, or events
  • -> process of appraisal
  • e.g. anger in teenager who is not allowed to go to party
effects of mood and emotion on episodic memory some research questions
Effects of mood and emotion on episodic memory Some research questions
  • General questions:
  • Do emotion and mood play any role in memory processing?
  • Do researchers have to consider them in context of memory
  • experiments?
  • More specific questions:
  • Does the mood state a person is in have any effect on encoding of an event?
  • … on storage / consolidation of an event?
  • … on retrieval of an event?
  • Does the match in state between encoding and retrieval matter?
effects of mood and emotion on encoding
Effects of mood and emotion on encoding
  • emotional Stroop effect (J. Williams):
  • name the color in which the word is printed
  • joyful
  • wet
  • round
  • sad
    • -> longer RTs for emotional than non-emotional words
    • -> automatic capture of attention by emotion
effects of mood and emotion on encoding10
Effects of mood and emotion on encoding
  • attention capture of emotion shows up in weapon focus effect
  • after traumatic event, emotionally salient info (e.g. gun) can be remembered better than other aspects of event
  • documented in research on memory for simulated crimes shown on video (Loftus & Burns, 1982)
    • -> high levels of arousal leads to narrowing of attentional focus on info that’s most relevant for current situation
    • -> adaptive for immediate survival
    • -> less beneficial from memory perspective
    • (e.g. remembering face of perpetrator)
effects of mood and emotion on encoding11
Effects of mood and emotion on encoding
  • moods and emotions may also guide what kind of info is encoded based on mechanisms other than attentional capture, namely elaborative rehearsal
  • -> depending on positive vs negative mood, different aspect of episode will be elaborated during encoding
  • e.g. experience of being at party
  • encoding based on feeling blue vs feeling happy
effects of mood and emotion on consolidation
Effects of mood and emotion on consolidation
  • study by Kleinsmith & Kaplan (1964) addressing role of arousal
  • stimuli at encoding: dance, swim, vomit, rape
  • increased galvanic skin response (arousal) for words with negative emotional response
  • at retrieval: free recall
effects of mood and emotion on consolidation13
Effects of mood and emotion on consolidation

study by Kleinsmith & Kaplan(1964)

- higher arousal at encoding leads to poorer immediate but better delayed recall

-> arousal affects physiological processes of consolidation

effects of mood and emotion on memory consolidation neuroanatomical basis15
Effects of mood and emotion on memory consolidation: Neuroanatomical basis
  • patients with bilateral damage to amygdala show no arousal effects of emotional stimuli on memory performance
  • other aspects of memory performance normal
      • -> amygdala linked with fibres to hippocampus
      • -> thought to play role in emotional coloring of info during consolidation
effects of mood and emotion on consolidation16
Effects of mood and emotion on consolidation
    • cognitive factors may also play role in beneficial effects of arousal on memory consolidation:
  • tick-rate hypothesis by Revelle and Loftus (1992)
  • -> emotional arousal increases rate at which info is encoded per unit time (richer encoding)
  • -> in short term, difficult to access specific info dueto large amount encoded
  • ->in long-tem info better integrated with pre- existing knowledge due to richness at encoding
effects of mood and emotion on consolidation17
Effects of mood and emotion on consolidation
  • physiological and cognitive factors play role in beneficial effects of arousal on memory consolidation
  • -> both factors may also make highly emotional events the most vivid in autobiographical memory
episodic memory effects of mood and emotion on retrieval
Episodic memoryEffects of mood and emotion on retrieval
  • effect of mood-congruency:
  • a given mood at retrieval tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood
  • + Baddeley’s example:
  • woman suffering from periods of depression recalling visits to swimming pool
  • -> depending on mood, she remembers unattractiveness in swimsuit or refreshing exercise
  • + systematic investigation in depressed patients in study by Clark & Teasdale, 1982
  • + BUT effect not limited to clinical populations
effects of mood and emotion encoding retrieval interactions
Effects of mood and emotion: encoding - retrieval interactions
  • Does the match in mood state between encoding and retrieval matter?
  • encoding-specificity principle
  • specific encoding operations determine what is stored, and what is stored determines what retrieval cues are effective in providing access to it
effects of mood and emotion encoding retrieval interactions21
Effects of mood and emotion: encoding - retrieval interactions
  • early research by Bower with hypnosis-induced mood states suggested effects of mood-state dependency
  • subsequent findings not always consistent
  • -> bigger likelihood for mood state dependency…
  • - when few other retrieval cues available (free recall)
  • - when mood intense
  • - when material related to real-life events
  • - when mood linked consciously to material at encoding (e.g. generate positive word that starts with sm---)
effects of mood and emotion encoding retrieval interactions22
Effects of mood and emotion: encoding - retrieval interactions
  • mood-congruency:
  • given mood tends to evoke memories that are consistent with that mood
  • mood state-dependency
    • anything experienced in given mood will be recalled more easily if mood is reinstated at retrieval
    • -> mood-state dependency focuses on mood as context for neutral content
    • -> mood-congruency refers to emotional content of retrieved info
    • in general: more research support for mood-congruency
effects of mood and emotion on memory flashbulb memories
Effects of mood and emotion on memory: Flashbulb memories
  • vivid, detailed, and persistent memories for moment of reception of surprising salient public events
  • e.g. assassination of JF Kennedy
  • fatal accident of Princess Dianne
  • terrorist attack on September 11
  • [compare with memory for other news events from Sept 2001]
  • Brown & Kulick: flashbulb memories
  • - ‘now print’ mechanism freezes details of moment (situation) in which we learn about event
  • - resulting memory representation is more detailed and more accurate than usual
flashbulb memories
Flashbulb memories
  • Brown & Kulick:
  • flashbulb-memory theory based on reports of detailed recollections of reception of JF Kennedy’s assassination
  • (as compared to RF Kennedy, ML King)
  • - events took place 1963/68; experiment conducted in 1970s
  • - questions asked:
  • + Do you remember the circumstances in which you first heard about…..?
  • + Where were you? Who told you? How did you feel?
  • detailed answers taken as evidence for presence of flashbulb memories; corroborated by reported feelings of vividness of memory
flashbulb memories25
Flashbulb memories
  • important additional finding by Brown & Kulick:
  • personal consequentiality of event relevant
  • -> different patterns of recollection in Afro- Americans vs Caucasian Americans for different assassinations
  • -> more flashbulb memories in former group for ML King and vice versa
flashbulb memories26
Flashbulb memories
  • methodological deficiency in study by Brown & Kulick:
  • no verification of accuracy of flashbulb memories
  • -> problem inherent in retrospective research approach
  • problem can never be addressed perfectly in research design due to nature of phenomenon (encoding not under control of experimenter)
  • but if memory is measured soon after event and compared with performance after longer delays accuracy can be further examined
flashbulb memories27
Flashbulb memories
  • Study by Conway et al. on resignation of British Prime minister M. Thatcher in 1990
  • examination of memory for reception of event in 100s of American and UK college students within 2 weeks of event and one year later
  • most important results
  • + flashbulb memories more prevalent in UK subjects
  • (86% vs 29% in UK vs USA)
  • + include much ‘irrelevant’ detail (unrelated to gist)
  • + very stable across 1 year
  • -> supports special status
flashbulb memories28
Flashbulb memories
  • additional findings from study by Conway et al. on resignation of M. Thatcher in 1990
  • most important factors that lead to creation of flashbulb memories:
  • + importance attached to event
  • + level of affective response to the news
  • + to a lesser extent: knowledge / interest
flashbulb memories conway s model
Flashbulb memories: Conway’s model

-> no special encoding mechanism required to explain phenomenon

(against Brown & Kulick theory)

flashbulb memories additional aspects discussed by schacter
Flashbulb memories: additional aspects discussed by Schacter
  • even though more reliable than memory for autobiographical details of everyday events, some forgetting occurs even for flashbulb memories
  • flashbulb memories often accompanied with high confidence
  • BUT: confidence no guarantee for high accuracy
  • flashbulb memories can be erroneous
    • -> not a photographic preservation
  • -> reconstructive errors occur even for flashbulb memories
  • e.g. how did you hear about Challenger disaster?
  • -> people make source confusions
are traumatic memories different in terms of cognitive mechanisms
Are traumatic memories different in terms of cognitive mechanisms?
  • William James:
  • ‘An experience may be so exciting emotionally as almost to leave a scar on the cerebral tissue’ -> “burnt-in”
  • -> may hold for positive and negative experiences
  • -> most systematically researched for personal events with great negative emotional significance, i.e. trauma
  • e.g.- collapse of skywalks of Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City 1981
  • - natural disasters earthquake / tornado
  • - combat experience in Vietnam
  • - Holocaust survivors
  • - rape victims
are traumatic memories different in terms of cognitive mechanisms32
Are traumatic memories different in terms of cognitive mechanisms?
  • memory for personal trauma frequently characterized by
  • vivid intrusive recollections;
  • -> very rich in experienced sensory quality (‘flashbacks’)
  • could reflect vicious cycle of mood-congruent memory retrieval driven by anxiety
  • difficult to control by individuals who experience them
  • best coping mechanisms:
  • - telling story of traumatic event
  • - bringing into perspective towards ‘rest of life’
  • - passing of time
are traumatic memories different in terms of cognitive mechanisms33
Are traumatic memories different in terms of cognitive mechanisms?
  • How accurate are they?
  • intrusive recollections suggest high accuracy and persistence
  • -> Schacter: good reason to believe that traumatic memories are more accurate than those for non- traumatic events
  • BUT even traumatic memories are subject to distortion
  • -> systematic investigation by Lenore Terr:
  • + research on memory in kids who were part of school bus kidnapping at gun point
are traumatic memories different in terms of cognitive mechanisms34
Are traumatic memories different in terms of cognitive mechanisms?
  • Lenore Terr’s findings:
  • - initial stress of shock can introduce perceptual errors at time of event (related to weapon focus)
  • - distortions may occur even for initially accurately perceived and remembered details
  • e.g. man with pillows stuffed into his pants
  • one of the cognitive processes at work:
  • + source confusion (own knowledge of event vs report by other children/media/police)