Animal Activists. Saving animals. Mary Wollstonecraft – 1700’s Original Stories from Real Life Shows bad boy breaking birds legs and the evil fate he suffers until he learns to be kind Conduct books . Anne Bronte – Agnes Grey.
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Saving animals • Mary Wollstonecraft – 1700’s • Original Stories from Real Life • Shows bad boy breaking birds legs and the evil fate he suffers until he learns to be kind • Conduct books
Anne Bronte – Agnes Grey • Brontë depicts scenes of cruelty towards animals, as well as degrading treatment of Agnes. • Parallels have been drawn between the oppression of these two groups-animals and females-that are "beneath" the upper class human male. • Agnes tries to impart in her charges the ability to empathize with others.
Anne Bronte – Agnes Gray • – Agnes Grey (1847) • Governess teaches wild children to respect nature • Morals, conduct taught during story • Sister wrote Jane Eyre (also about governess’ treatment
Society for the Protection of Birds • Mrs. Robert Williams – England • Held meeting/ teas to tell women about the rapid decline of the egret due to women’s fashionable hats • Eliza Philips –started Fur, Fin and Feathers Society, eventually merged with Society for the Protection of Birds • Bird Notes and News • Sea Bird Protection Act 1869 – saved England shorebirds but began import of almost a million birds from Asia, India and South America
Philips and Lemon con’t • 1891 Destruction of Ornamental Plumaged Birds • Sent to Queen, who sent a note back that she was already aware of the problem • Tried to shame women into giving up fashion to save birds • Non-scientific approach
Saving the birds • Counter to commerce of the day – feathers = $$$$ • Hunters • Processor • Millinery (hat makers) • Public speech in 1903 • When it is too late, men and women will discover what a poor, worthless, uninhabitable place this world is without the birds
The Pledge • Margareta Lemon, worked with Philips, wrote articles & cartoons showing cruelty of hat fashions for birds • Made members sign pledge: • … discourage the use of live animals, refrain from wearing feathers • Note church goers wearing feathers, sent notes telling them how many birds died to make their hats.
History of bird feather use • http://americanhistory.si.edu/feather/index.htm • "WINGS, BREASTS & BIRDS" • by Joanne Haug, fashion editor • "The entire bird is used, and is mounted on wires and springs that permit the head and wings to be moved about in the most natural manner." Harper's Bazaar, 1875 • http://www.riverjunction.com/ • http://www.victoriana.com/Victorian-Hats/birdhats.htm
Sample of Birds affected • Snowy egret • Tumpeter swan (down to 69 birds in 1930’s) • White Pelicans • Whooping Cranes • Ostrich • herons
Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 • United States legislation implementing the convention between the U.S. and Great Britain (for Canada). It replaced the Weeks-McLean Act, which had become effective in 1913. • The United States subsequently entered into similar agreements with four other nations (Canada, Mexico, Japan and Russia) to protect migratory birds. • The statute makes it unlawful to pursue, hunt, take, capture, kill or sell birds listed therein ("migratory birds"). The statute does not discriminate between live or dead birds and also grants full protection to any bird parts including feathers, eggs and nests. • Over 800 species are currently on the list. • http://www.birdiq.com/learn/laws.html
For the Animals • Frances Power Cobbe (mid 1800’s) • Crusaded for women & animals • Helped pass the Married Women’s Property Act of 1870 • Against vivisection and cruelty to lab animals (hero of current PETA groups) • Wrote several books and articles • The New Morality – sensitivity to pain of animals recognized.
The National Anti-vivisection Society • Formed in 1921, US • http://www.navs.org/site/PageServer?pagename=index • 1. What is vivisection? • 2. How do they propose to change science to avoid vivisection • 3. What is the controversy? Why are people so upset about this? • 4. What are some of the problems with vivisection? • 5. What are the solutions? • 6. What do you think about it? • 7. What do you think the future will hold for this practice (will we develop alternatives & why?)
Animal rights • Sarah Grand – The Beth Book • Cruelty and indifference to animals tied to cruelty to women • World of men portrayed as insensitive, uncaring • Must change both men and women’s attitude toward each other & animals
Anna Sewell – Black Beauty • Mistreatment and insensitivity to animals was common in the 1800’s. • Several authors were using fiction literature for children to teach morals and ethics. • Conduct book