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Wireless Application Protocol. Kulesh Shanmugasundaram kulesh@photon.poly.edu. Introduction. History of WAP Ericsson develop ITTP for VAS - 1995 Unwired Planet develop HDML, HDTP - 1996 Nokia develop Smart Messaging, TTML – 1997 WAP Forum formed in June 1997 Table of Contents

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wireless application protocol

Wireless Application Protocol

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

kulesh@photon.poly.edu

introduction
Introduction
  • History of WAP
    • Ericsson develop ITTP for VAS - 1995
    • Unwired Planet develop HDML, HDTP - 1996
    • Nokia develop Smart Messaging, TTML – 1997
    • WAP Forum formed in June 1997
  • Table of Contents
    • Architecture
    • Protocol Stack
    • Development
    • Future of WAP

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

architecture of wap
Architecture of WAP

WAP!

WAP!!

Encoded Request

HTTP Request

CGIScripts

User Agent

Encoders & Decoders

content

Encoded Response

HTTP Response

Server

(Web Server)

Gateway(WAP Server)

Clients(handheld device)

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

architecture of wap4
Architecture of WAP

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

architecture of wap5
Architecture of WAP

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

limits

Limited CPU,

Memory

Limits…

LimitedBandwidth

I’m

Popular!

LimitedDisplay

LimitedKeyboard

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wap protocol stack
WAP Protocol Stack

Application Layer (WAE)

Other Services

&

Applications

Session Layer (WSP)

Transaction Layer (WTP)

Security Layer (WTLS)

Transport Layer (WDP)

Bearers:

iDEN

GSM

CDMA

CDPD

IS-136

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wap protocol stack8
WAP Protocol Stack
  • Makes applications independent of bearers and other hardware
  • External applications and services may access the layers directly
  • Modified to allow for
    • Lower Bandwidth (9.6kbps – 14.4kbps)
    • Network latency (6 – 10 seconds on SMS)
    • Unreliable connections

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wireless application environment wae
Wireless Application Environment (WAE)
  • A micro-browser environment containing
    • Addressing Model (URL, URI)
    • Wireless Markup Language (WML)
    • WMLScript
    • Content Formats – WBMP, vCard, vCalendar
  • WTA User Agent
    • Handles wireless devices telephony functions

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wireless session protocol wsp
Wireless Session Protocol (WSP)
  • A strip down version of HTTP/1.1 (“B”)
    • Maintain session states
    • Session suspend, resume (long-lived sessions)
    • Facilitate reliable & unreliable data push
    • Protocol feature negotiation
    • Header caching

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wireless transaction protocol wtp
Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP)
  • Three types of transactions
    • Unreliable one-way requests (class 0)
    • Reliable one-way requests (class 1)
    • Reliable two-way request-reply (class 2)
  • Reliability thru [selective] re-transmission & delayed acks
  • PDU concatenation
  • Asynchronous transactions

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wireless transport layer security wtls
Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
  • WTLS is an optional layer
  • Privacy thru encryption
  • Data integrity thru MACs
  • Authentication & nonrepudiation thru digital certificates
  • Compression
  • Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) http://www.certicom.com/

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wireless datagram protocol wdp
Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP)
  • Offers consistent services to upper layers and communicate transparently over one of the available bearer services.
  • Global interoperability can be achieved using mediating gateways.
  • IP & IPLess bearers
    • Use UDP for IP bearers (eg. CSD)
    • Follow WAP Specs for others (GSM)
  • Error handling done by WCMP

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

how limits are handled
How limits are handled
  • Low bandwidth
    • WML contents are encoded
    • WSP supports long-lived sessions
    • WTP designed to minimize number of transactions
  • High latency
    • Asynchronous request/response model
    • Client side programming using WMLScript
    • WTA repositories
  • Unreliable connection
    • WSP supports long-lived sessions to resume efficiently
    • Selective retransmission of segments by WTP

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

how limits are handled cont
How limits are handled (cont…)
  • Small Display
    • Decks and card interface
  • Limited input facilities
    • Decks and card makes inter-page navigation easier
  • Limited memory & CPU
    • Binary encoding of WML contents saves memory
    • Limited set of functionality of WMLScript & libraries
  • Limited battery power
    • Minimizing bandwidth needs

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

what is in a client
What is in a client?
  • WML
    • A lightweight markup language, similar to HTML but optimized for hand-held devices
  • WMLScript
    • Similar to ECMA Script, enhanced with libraries
  • Micro-browser
  • WTA Libraries

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

what is in a wap server
What is in a WAP Server?

SNMP

Java

Logging

Sub. DB

M

A

N

A

G

E

M

E

N

T

BillingData

Subscriber

Data

Encoders

ServerApplications

Context Manager

WSP

HTTP

WTP

WTLS

WDP/Adaptation

TCP/IP

Bearers

Internet/FW

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

what is in a wap server18
What is in a WAP Server?
  • WAP Server bridges the mobile hand-held device and rest of the world
  • Usually it is the homepage of the browser in a handheld device
  • WML/HTML Filters
  • Two types of deployment strategies can be used (figures)

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

what does the web server do
What does the web server do?
  • Nothing unusual
  • How to make your web server serve WAP contents. Define these MIME types

Document typeMIME typeTypical extension

Plain WML documents text/vnd.wap.wml .wml

Wireless Bitmap Images image/vnd.wap.wbmp .wbmp

Compiled WML documentsapplication/vnd.wap.wmlc .wmlc

WMLScripts text/vnd.wap.wmlscript .wmls

Compiled WML Scripts application/vnd.wap.wmlscriptc .wmlsc

  • You are ready to serve WAP contents!

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wap development
WAP Development
  • Development on the client side:
    • Limited memory, limited display, limited power, limited everything…
    • Most programming is done with WML, WMLScript, WTAI
    • Some in ANSI C
    • A Sample code

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wml howdy world
WML: “Howdy World!”

<?xml version=“1.0”?>

<!DOCTYPE WML PUBLIC “-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN”http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml>

<wml>

<card>

<p>

Howdy World!

</p>

</card>

</wml>

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wap development22
WAP Development
  • Development on server side:
    • Most of the development is done at WAP Server
    • Vendor dependent development tools
    • Java Servlets, C/C++ & PERL
    • Usually APIs are provided
    • Network operator may develop VAS on WTA Server

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

wap development23
WAP Development
  • What can we develop?
    • Tetris, yay!
    • Push technology at its best
    • Access to your intranet
    • Advanced telephony features using WTA
    • Remotely control your house (MultiSens)
    • Anything you wish!

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

future of wap
Future of WAP
  • Internet on a cell-phone
  • Speech API
  • Vendor independent telephony services
  • Streaming media
  • Multicasting
  • Downloadable applications

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

resources
Resources
  • http://www.wapforum.com
  • http://www.phone.com
  • Nokia WAP Developer Forumhttp://www.forum.nokia.com/developers/wap/
  • The Independent WAP/WML FAQhttp://wap.colorline.no/wap-faq/
  • Yahoo!http://search.yahoo.com/bin/search?p=WAP
  • WAP Portalhttp://www.wapdrive.net/

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram

the end
The End

The End

Kulesh Shanmugasundaram