WHAT POWERED THE BIG BANG?. WHAT HAPPENS AT THE EDGE OF A BLACK HOLE?. WHAT IS DARK ENERGY?. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Presented by Dr. James Lochner (USRA & NASA/GSFC). Beyond Einstein. Einstein’s Predictions Expanding Universe Black Holes Dark Energy
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WHAT HAPPENSAT THE EDGEOF A BLACK HOLE?
WHAT ISDARK ENERGY?
National Aeronautics andSpace Administration
Presented by Dr. James Lochner (USRA & NASA/GSFC)
Einstein changed the way we think of the universe:
Einstein’s theories also made three startling predictions:
(acting against pull of gravity)
These predictions have been confirmed by observations.
A dying star becomes a white dwarf.
The white dwarf strips gas from its stellar companion….
….and uses it to become a hydrogen bomb. Bang!
The explosion is as bright as an entire galaxy of stars….
…..and can be seen in galaxies across the universe.
Flatness of Universe and amount of known matter (and dark matter) means dark energy makes up 70% of the Universe
We do not know what 95% of the universe is made of!
Einstein’s legacy is incomplete, his theory fails to explain the underlying physics of the very phenomena his work predicted
What Powered the Big Bang?
Gravitational Waves Can Escape from Earliest Moments of the Big Bang
(Big Bang plus
Big Bang plus 300,000 Years
Big Bang plus
14 Billion Years
Joint ESA-NASA project
LISA uses a laser based Michelson interferometer to monitor the separation between proof masses in separate spacecraft.
Black holes are ubiquitous in the Universe
Close to a black hole event horizon,
extreme distortions of space & time predicted by Einstein can be observed
Chandra Deep Image
A fleet of 4 X-ray Telescopes to perform high resolution spectroscopy on faint x-ray sources
X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer:
Measure the heat from an x-ray to determine the x-ray’s energy.
Resolution of 4 ev for a 6 kev x-ray energy. (25x-100x better than current sensitivity.)
Einstein introduced the Cosmological Constant to explain what was then thought to be a static Universe, “my biggest mistake . . . ”
Three inter-linked components that work together:
0.1 micro arc sec resolution
4-8 m arc secImage a Black Hole!
Hubble, Chandra, and other observatories are showing black holes are common place in the Universe.
Black holes provide a unique laboratory to test Einstein’s theory of gravity.
0.1 arc sec resolution
A future black hole imager with a resolution one million times Hubble will observe the effects Einstein predicted.
X-ray emission from close to the event horizon provides a powerful probe.
How did the Universe begin? Does time have beginning & an end? Does space have edges? The questions are as old as human curiosity. But the answers have always seemed beyond the reach of science. . .
Three focused missions, each designed to address a single high priority science question: