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Vocabulary Chapter 1

Vocabulary Chapter 1. Mrs. Mckniff. Herculean ( adj ). Herculean : tremendous in size, strength, difficulty, or effort

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Vocabulary Chapter 1

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  1. Vocabulary Chapter 1 Mrs. Mckniff

  2. Herculean (adj) • Herculean : tremendous in size, strength, difficulty, or effort • Etymology: Hercules was the strongest of the heroes from Greek mythology. Hercules atoned for his actions by accomplishing twelve super-human tasks known as “the Labors of Hercules.” • Synonyms: mighty, immense, colossal • Related words: titanic

  3. A heavily muscled man such as a champion body builder is said to have a herculean build.

  4. Bowdlerize (v) • Bowdlerize: Remove or change parts considered vulgar or immoral • Etymology: Thomas Bowdler’s name has become synonymous with prudish censorship. • Synonyms: Delete, censor, expurgate • Related word: Purge

  5. When we read a bowdlerized work, we risk being deprived not only of pleasure but also of literary quality and historical truth.

  6. Pandemonium (n.) • Pandemonium: utter confusion or wild uproar • Etymology: John Milton coined the term in his poem Paradise Lost. Milton named the capital of Hell “Pandemonium,” an apt description since pan means “all” and daimon means “demon” in Greek. • Synonyms: chaos, noisy confusion, tumult • Related words: bedlam

  7. Teachers experience pandemonium when they confront a wild and unruly class, a chaotic situation created by the noisy chatter of “little devils.”

  8. Pander (v.) • Pander: Play up to another’s desires and weaknesses • Etymology: Pandarus arranged for the couple to make love in his home. Because of his morally questionable manipulation of these lovers, Pandarus has given us the word “pander,” which as a noun means a “pimp.” • Synonyms: indulge, gratify, cater

  9. Tricky land developers pander to our greed, pornographic movies pander to our lust, and ambitious politicians pander to the uneducated masses for their votes.

  10. Quixotic (adj) • Quixotic: idealistic but not practical • Etymology: In Don Quixote by the Spanish novelist Cervantes, Don Quixote images himself a knight and engages in wildly impractical feats, such as fighting a windmill he mistakes for evil giants. • Synonyms: visionary, fanciful, chimerical • Related word: utopian

  11. Critics of summit conferences think it quixotic that brief meetings of world leaders can bring about lasting peace.

  12. Cynical (adj) • Cynical : doubting the goodness and sincerity of others • Etymology: Originally the school of thought became associated with the name of his gymnasium, Cynosarges (“white dog”). . . • Synonyms: distrustful, derisive • Related words: sarcastic, pessimistic

  13. A cynical person is skeptical and sarcastic.

  14. Stoical (adj) • Definition: Indifferent to pain and pleasure • Etymology: Zeno met students at the poikile stoa (“painted porch”). . .his teachings became associated with the Greek work for “porch” (stoa or stoikos). • Synonyms: self-controlled, imperturbable • Related words: impassive

  15. A stoical person shows great self-control, whether confronting pain, pleasure, joy or grief.

  16. Stigma (n) • Stigma: mark of disgrace • Etymology: In ancient Greece captured runaway slaves were branded on the forehead with a stigma (“tattoo”) to make escape in the future difficult. • Synonyms: stain, taint • Related words: odium, onus

  17. Benedict Arnold bears the stigma of being America’s most famous traitor.

  18. Impede (v) • Impede: hinder, obstruct, slow down the process of • Etymology: Slaves and convicts in ancient Rome were sometimes shackled with leg-irons. The Latin word impedio, coming from im (“in”) and pedis (“foot”), meant “to chain the feet.” • Synonyms: Block, delay, thwart • Related words: hinder

  19. A noisy roommate may impede one from studying for exams.

  20. Expedite (v) • Definition: Speed-up; hasten or help the accomplishment of • When the leg-irons were taken off the slaves, they were able to take the “foot” “pedis” “out” (ex) of its chain. • Synonyms: accelerate, quicken, facilitate

  21. If we know a college president, he may expedite our acceptance to his institution.

  22. Word Part Words • VOC—voice, call (vocation, vocal)

  23. Vociferous (adj. ) • Noisy; loudly insistent

  24. Evocative (adj. ) • Calling up, producing; suggestive

  25. Avocation (n. ) • hobby

  26. Irrevocable (adj. ) • Unable to be called back or undone; unchangeable

  27. Equivocate (v. ) • Use words ambiguously or unclearly, usually in order to mislead; hedge

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