The Seed of the Restoration Movement Were First Planted in Scotland in the 18th Century.
Why Scotland? • A History of Religious Turmoil • Joined England in rejecting Catholic church. • John Knox introduced Calvinism • Founding of Church of Scotland, Presbyterian in government. • Division in church.
Work of “lay preachers” • Powerful leaders • Common Sense School of Philosophy and John Locke. • Dissatisfaction with relationship of Church of Scotland with Great Britain • Fierce Spirit of Independence
1695 Born in Fife, Scotland. His father was a minister of the church of Scotland. • 1713 Graduated from University of St. Andrews with M. A. Then attended University of Edinburgh. • 1718 Licensed as Presbyterian minister. Preached at Dunkeld.
1719 Moved to Tealing. Here he preached a series of sermons comparing doctrine of Presbyterians with the Bible. • 1727 Wrote The Testimony of the King of Martyrs Concerning His Kingdom. • Opposed state churches
1725 Left Tealing church and started an Independent church. About 100 went with him. • Church agreed to follow Glas as overseer. • Observed Lord’s Supper monthly • Practiced discipline found in Matthew 18.
1726-26 Glas brought before several synods. Finally deposed as a preacher. • 1739 General Assembly broke precedent and revoked sentence of deposition He was restored as a preacher but not for the church of Scotland. 1775 Died at age of 78. His wife and all fifteen children preceded him in death.
Teachings of John Glas • Authority of Scriptures over all creeds. • Restoration if New Testament Christianity. • Church is a local congregation • Autonomy of local church • Faith demonstrated by obedience • Baptism is the sign of our covenant with Christ. Unites one with Christ and the Church,
“. . . the washing of our bodies. . . in baptism imparts purification from the defilement of sin. . . .” • Still accepted sprinkling as dedication of infants. • Lord’s Supper to be observed weekly. • Acts 2:42 is a pattern for worship.
1718 Born April 29, in Perth Scotland. His father, David, an indifferent Glasite by membership, introduced his son to Glas’ ideas at an early age.
1734 Enrolled in the University of Edinburgh, completing two terms While a student at the University of Edinburgh that Sandeman became a member of a Glasite church.
During his time in Edinburgh, Sandeman had the opportunity to personally meet Glas and some of his associates.
1735 Left the University and became an apprentice in the weaving business. • 1737 Married John Glas’ daughter Catherine. • 1741 Left a prosperous weaving business he had established with his brother. Income from this allowed him to devoted his full time to preaching. He also took part in the church where Glas was an elder.”
1744 At the age of 26, Sandeman was appointed an elder of Glas’ congregation and became their primary literary publisher. • 1745 As an elder, he wrote a letter reproving his father for neglecting the assembly.
1757 Published the most controversial and widely read of all his works was Letters on • Theron and Aspasio (1757). This work was a dialogue between Sandeman and James Hervey, a well-known Calvinist minister from Northamptonshire, concerning Hervey’s work Dialogues between Theron and Aspasio (1755) This dialogue brought Sandeman’s theology
1760 Word reached Sandeman in London that his work Letters on Theron and Aspasio had caused quite a stir in the American colonies. • 1763 Sandeman invited by several men in America to visit and teach. Since his wife had died, he accepted the invitation.
SANDEMAN’S VIEWS • His views were very similar to those of Glas. • He believed in strict discipline, similar to that of the church of Scotland. • Elders must be in every church. The Lord’s Supper could not be observed with elders present. • Justification and faith. • Faith is man accepting the redeeming work of God, not earning it. • Faith is an activity instead of mere mental assent.
*They called themselves the “church of Christ” but did not believe this was a specific name. *Opposed all religious creeds. *Refused the title, “reverend” and did not wear clerical clothing. *Foot washing and the holy kiss *The holy kiss was practiced at the end of the love feast. *Foot washing was only occasional.
1764 Robert born in London. • 1768 James born in Dundee, father died two weeks later. • 1778 Mother died, reared by maternal grandmother. Both served in the Royal Navy, James reaching rank of captain. • 1785 James marries Katherine and move to Airthery, near Stirling. Attended a Congregational church. Robert had previously been influenced by Robert Bogue, brother-in-law of Greville Ewing.
1793 James leaves Navy. While living in London meets and is influenced by Willliam Innes, an Independent preacher. • 1796 Robert hears of great mission work in India and determines to go. Invites Bogue, Ewing and others to accompany him. • However, government permission denied.
Meanwhile, James becomes associated with John Campbell in “Sabbath Schools”. He established 34 in vicinity of Edinburgh in six months. Robert joins in effort.
1798 Greville Ewing preaches last sermon for church of Scotland. He, William Innes and the Haldanes form a Congregational church after order of Glas and Sandeman.
1799 Started Tabernacle church with 300 members • Lord’s Supper every first day, if minister present. • Weeky collection for the poor.
1798 Robert sent 10 young men to David Bogues school in Gosport, England. • 1799 Formed own school in Edinburgh, Greville Ewing in charge. In May, moved to Glasgow where Ewing preached for the Glasgow Tabernacle. • 1800 Disagreement between Robert Haldane and Ewing over which church in charge of school. Haldane moved church back to Edinburgh. However, school came under influence of Glas / Sandeman.
Beliefs • New Testament as pattern for worship • Apostolic church as model for all ages. • Congregational autonomy • Elders served to guide and teach church. • Each church had ministers and deacons • Weekly observance of Lord’s Supper
In 1808 the Haldanes rejected infant baptism and were immersed. • Practiced foot washing, more as a custom of hospitality. • Replaced Holy Kiss with more contemporary greetings. • Called self, “Church of Christ”
Relation to Haldenes with Glas/Sandeman • Haldanes influenced much by Glas. They either agreed or adopted much of Glas’ understandings. • Robert Haldane became a great admirer of Robert Sandeman.
Differences • Infant Baptism. • Discipline. Glas was much stricter. • The Haldanes were more evangelistic. Glas and Sandeman were more teachers.
Influence in America • 1816-18 George Forrester moved to Pittsburgh and founded a church and school.
THE SCOTCH BAPTISTS • Developed from the Independent movement and were much influenced by Haldanes. • Some called “Haldane Baptists”.
Teachings • Baptism for remission of sins. • Followed pattern of worship in Acts 2:42 • Observed love feast and washing of feet. • Avoided gaudy, worldly appearance. • Retained some Calvinistic beliefs but thought elect could back slide.
INFLUENCE OF SCOTCH REFORMERS ON ALEXANDER CAMPBELL • We cannot determined how much they influenced him. He claimed he was not a member of any movement. • Rich Hill, where he lived was often visited by Haldane ministers. He heard James Haldane preach. • He was acquainted with Alexander Carson who lived near him. In attempting to answer a Scotch Baptism on the mode of baptism, Carson accepted immersion.
In 1808 the Campbell family sailed for America to join Thomas. However ship was wrecked off coast of Scotland.
Family spent winter in Glasgow. • Alexander Campbell able to attend University of Glasgow. • Became associated with Greville Ewing and Haldanes. • It was during this period that the Haldanes rejected sprinkling as baptism.
Areas of agreement and disagreement. • Agreed with Glas in many areas. Felt he was inconsistent on Infant baptism. • Agreed that faith more than belief in the truth. • Thought Sandeman had incomplete understanding of faith and baptism.
Campbell’s Visit to Great Britain in 1847 • Visited many Scotch Baptist, Sandemanian and Independent churches. • “The Scotch Baptists must certainly unite with our brethren in England and Scotland” • In Edinburgh he went to hear James Haldane but he was not there. Disappointed in condition of the congregation.
A Haldane congregation in Londonderry converted. • Campbell led a cooperative meeting in Chester, England and agreed to help find an evangelist in America to help them.