the scottish influence on the american restoration movment l.
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THE SCOTTISH INFLUENCE ON THE AMERICAN RESTORATION MOVMENT. . The Seed of the Restoration Movement Were First Planted in Scotland in the 18 th Century. DUNDEE. Why Scotland?. A History of Religious Turmoil Joined England in rejecting Catholic church. John Knox introduced Calvinism

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why scotland
Why Scotland?
  • A History of Religious Turmoil
  • Joined England in rejecting Catholic church.
  • John Knox introduced Calvinism
  • Founding of Church of Scotland, Presbyterian in government.
  • Division in church.
Work of “lay preachers”
  • Powerful leaders
  • Common Sense School of Philosophy and John Locke.
  • Dissatisfaction with relationship of Church of Scotland with Great Britain
  • Fierce Spirit of Independence
1695 Born in Fife, Scotland. His father was a minister of the church of Scotland.
  • 1713 Graduated from University of St. Andrews with M. A. Then attended University of Edinburgh.
  • 1718 Licensed as Presbyterian minister. Preached at Dunkeld.
1719 Moved to Tealing. Here he preached a series of sermons comparing doctrine of Presbyterians with the Bible.
  • 1727 Wrote The Testimony of the King of Martyrs Concerning His Kingdom.
  • Opposed state churches
1725 left tealing church and started an independent church about 100 went with him
1725 Left Tealing church and started an Independent church. About 100 went with him.
  • Church agreed to follow Glas as overseer.
  • Observed Lord’s Supper monthly
  • Practiced discipline found in Matthew 18.
1726-26 Glas brought before several synods. Finally deposed as a preacher.
  • 1739 General Assembly broke precedent and revoked sentence of deposition He was restored as a preacher but not for the church of Scotland.

1775 Died at age of 78. His wife and all fifteen children preceded him in death.

teachings of john glas
Teachings of John Glas
  • Authority of Scriptures over all creeds.
  • Restoration if New Testament Christianity.
  • Church is a local congregation
  • Autonomy of local church
  • Faith demonstrated by obedience
  • Baptism is the sign of our covenant with Christ. Unites one with Christ and the Church,
“. . . the washing of our bodies. . . in baptism imparts purification from the defilement of sin. . . .”
  • Still accepted sprinkling as dedication of infants.
  • Lord’s Supper to be observed weekly.
  • Acts 2:42 is a pattern for worship.

1718 Born April 29, in Perth Scotland. His father, David, an indifferent Glasite by membership, introduced his son to Glas’ ideas at an early age.


1734 Enrolled in the University of Edinburgh, completing two terms While a student at the University of Edinburgh that Sandeman became a member of a Glasite church.

During his time in Edinburgh, Sandeman had the opportunity to personally meet Glas and some of his associates.
1735 Left the University and became an apprentice in the weaving business.
  • 1737 Married John Glas’ daughter Catherine.
  • 1741 Left a prosperous weaving business he had established with his brother. Income from this allowed him to devoted his full time to preaching. He also took part in the church where Glas was an elder.”
1744 At the age of 26, Sandeman was appointed an elder of Glas’ congregation and became their primary literary publisher.
  • 1745 As an elder, he wrote a letter reproving his father for neglecting the assembly.
1757 Published the most controversial and widely read of all his works was Letters on
  • Theron and Aspasio (1757). This work was a dialogue between Sandeman and James Hervey, a well-known Calvinist minister from Northamptonshire, concerning Hervey’s work Dialogues between Theron and Aspasio (1755) This dialogue brought Sandeman’s theology
1760 Word reached Sandeman in London that his work Letters on Theron and Aspasio had caused quite a stir in the American colonies.
  • 1763 Sandeman invited by several men in America to visit and teach. Since his wife had died, he accepted the invitation.
sandeman s views
  • His views were very similar to those of Glas.
  • He believed in strict discipline, similar to that of the church of Scotland.
  • Elders must be in every church. The Lord’s Supper could not be observed with elders present.
  • Justification and faith.
  • Faith is man accepting the redeeming work of God, not earning it.
  • Faith is an activity instead of mere mental assent.
*They called themselves the “church of Christ” but did not believe this was a specific name.

*Opposed all religious creeds.

*Refused the title, “reverend” and did not wear clerical clothing.

*Foot washing and the holy kiss

*The holy kiss was practiced at the end of the love feast.

*Foot washing was only occasional.

1764 Robert born in London.
  • 1768 James born in Dundee, father died two weeks later.
  • 1778 Mother died, reared by maternal grandmother. Both served in the Royal Navy, James reaching rank of captain.
  • 1785 James marries Katherine and move to Airthery, near Stirling. Attended a Congregational church. Robert had previously been influenced by Robert Bogue, brother-in-law of Greville Ewing.
1793 James leaves Navy. While living in London meets and is influenced by Willliam Innes, an Independent preacher.
  • 1796 Robert hears of great mission work in India and determines to go. Invites Bogue, Ewing and others to accompany him.
  • However, government permission denied.

Meanwhile, James becomes associated with John Campbell in “Sabbath Schools”. He established 34 in vicinity of Edinburgh in six months. Robert joins in effort.


1798 Greville Ewing preaches last sermon for church of Scotland. He, William Innes and the Haldanes form a Congregational church after order of Glas and Sandeman.

1799 started tabernacle church with 300 members
1799 Started Tabernacle church with 300 members
  • Lord’s Supper every first day, if minister present.
  • Weeky collection for the poor.
1798 Robert sent 10 young men to David Bogues school in Gosport, England.
  • 1799 Formed own school in Edinburgh, Greville Ewing in charge. In May, moved to Glasgow where Ewing preached for the Glasgow Tabernacle.
  • 1800 Disagreement between Robert Haldane and Ewing over which church in charge of school. Haldane moved church back to Edinburgh. However, school came under influence of Glas / Sandeman.
  • New Testament as pattern for worship
  • Apostolic church as model for all ages.
  • Congregational autonomy
  • Elders served to guide and teach church.
  • Each church had ministers and deacons
  • Weekly observance of Lord’s Supper
In 1808 the Haldanes rejected infant baptism and were immersed.
  • Practiced foot washing, more as a custom of hospitality.
  • Replaced Holy Kiss with more contemporary greetings.
  • Called self, “Church of Christ”
relation to haldenes with glas sandeman
Relation to Haldenes with Glas/Sandeman
  • Haldanes influenced much by Glas. They either agreed or adopted much of Glas’ understandings.
  • Robert Haldane became a great admirer of Robert Sandeman.
  • Infant Baptism.
  • Discipline. Glas was much stricter.
  • The Haldanes were more evangelistic. Glas and Sandeman were more teachers.
influence in america
Influence in America
  • 1816-18 George Forrester moved to Pittsburgh and founded a church and school.
the scotch baptists
  • Developed from the Independent movement and were much influenced by Haldanes.
  • Some called “Haldane Baptists”.
  • Baptism for remission of sins.
  • Followed pattern of worship in Acts 2:42
  • Observed love feast and washing of feet.
  • Avoided gaudy, worldly appearance.
  • Retained some Calvinistic beliefs but thought elect could back slide.
influence of scotch reformers on alexander campbell
  • We cannot determined how much they influenced him. He claimed he was not a member of any movement.
  • Rich Hill, where he lived was often visited by Haldane ministers. He heard James Haldane preach.
  • He was acquainted with Alexander Carson who lived near him. In attempting to answer a Scotch Baptism on the mode of baptism, Carson accepted immersion.
In 1808 the Campbell family sailed for America to join Thomas. However ship was wrecked off coast of Scotland.
Family spent winter in Glasgow.
  • Alexander Campbell able to attend University of Glasgow.
  • Became associated with Greville Ewing and Haldanes.
  • It was during this period that the Haldanes rejected sprinkling as baptism.
areas of agreement and disagreement
Areas of agreement and disagreement.
  • Agreed with Glas in many areas. Felt he was inconsistent on Infant baptism.
  • Agreed that faith more than belief in the truth.
  • Thought Sandeman had incomplete understanding of faith and baptism.
campbell s visit to great britain in 1847
Campbell’s Visit to Great Britain in 1847
  • Visited many Scotch Baptist, Sandemanian and Independent churches.
  • “The Scotch Baptists must certainly unite with our brethren in England and Scotland”
  • In Edinburgh he went to hear James Haldane but he was not there. Disappointed in condition of the congregation.
A Haldane congregation in Londonderry converted.
  • Campbell led a cooperative meeting in Chester, England and agreed to help find an evangelist in America to help them.
the scotch baptists51
  • The Scotch Baptists developed out of the Scottish independent tradition that sought to live separate from the authority of the Church of Scotland.
  • Some called “Haldane Baptists”
  • Followed worship pattern of Acts 2:42
  • Observed the kiss of charity
  • The washing of one another's feet, when it is really serviceable as an act of hospitality.
  • They thought that a gaudy external appearance in either sex, be their station what it may, is a sure indication of the pride and vanity of heart.
They also consider gaming, attending plays, routs, balls, and some other fashionable diversions, as unbecoming the Christian profession.
  • They retained some Calvinistic beliefs but consider the elect could back slide.
  • They taught baptism for the remission of sins.
Campbell doubtless was influenced by Independent leaders while in Ireland and Scotland. Yet he claimed he belonged to none of them.
Rich Hill, where Thomas Campbell lived, was often visited by Haldane ministers.
  • In his youth Alexander Campbell heard Rowland Hill on his evangelistic tour of northern Ireland.

Rowland Hill


James Haldane visited Rich Hill in 1801.
  • AC was also acquainted with Alexander Carson who lived nearby. In 1808 Carson challenged a Scotch Baptist on the mode of baptism. In his attempts to answer him from a study of the Bible, he accepted immersion.
In October, 1808, the Campbell family sailed for America to join Thomas. However, the were ship wrecked and spent the winter in Glasgow.
Here he came associated with Greville Ewing and the Haldanes.
  • During this period these men had accepted immersion, as Carson had recently done.
  • From Glas AC learned the separation of church and state, congregational independence, weekly observance of the Lord’s Supper, and anti creedalism.
  • He saw Glas as inconsistent on infant baptism.
  • He and Sandeman saw this as a dedicatory rite. The Haldanes later rejected this.
He disagreed with the dogmatic and uncharitable attitude he saw in some of the Sandeman persuasion.
  • He agreed with him on the nature of faith. “. . . faith is no more than belief in the truth. . . “
  • He saw that Sandeman had in incomplete understanding on the necessity of faith and baptism as expressions of faith.

In 1759, the estate was sold to Captain Robert Haldane of Plean. In 1791, his son, Robert Haldane, commissioned the design by the eminent architect Robert Adam, which is the basis of Airthrey Castle today.

sandeman was like a giant among dwarfs he was like samson with the posts of gaza on his shoulders
?Sandeman was like a giant among dwarfs. He was likeSamson with the posts of Gaza on his shoulders “
john glas 1695 1773
  • Born September 21, 1695
  • His Father, Thomas Was Minister Of The Church of Scotland
  • Attended Grammar School At Perth, Later Attending St. Leonard’s College at St. Andrews. Received M.A. May 6, 1713
  • Then Attended University Of Edinburgh
  • Received A Calvinistic Education Both At Home & University
  • Licensed As A Presbyterian Minister At Dunkeld Presbytery On May 20, 1718, Later At Tealing In Forfarshire May 6, 1719
  • At Tealing Presbyterian Church 5 Years
john glas 1695 177369
  • 1727 – Wrote The Testimony Of The King Of Martyrs Concerning The Kingdom
    • Against State Churches &
    • Intervention Of Civil Authorities In Church Matters
  • Believed:
    • The Church Is Made Up Of Those Who Experienced The Grace Of Christ
    • Separated Themselves From The World
    • Gathered Themselves In The Church
    • Therefore, No Place For Civil Affairs
  • Separated From Tealing Church, July 13, 1725, Starting An Independent Church
    • 100 People Followed
    • Agreed To Follow Christ As Lord
    • Subjected Themselves To Glas’ Leadership
    • Observed The Lord’s Supper Monthly (Not Quarterly Like Scottish Church)
    • Followed Matthew 18 – Church Discipline
    • Formed A Society Of Believers
john glas 1695 177370
  • Divisions Continue
    • August 6, 1726 – At Strathmartine
    • Taught John 18:36,37 – Christ’s Kingdom Is Not Of This World
    • No Earthly Civil Designation Of Authority (Against Physical Kingdom Teaching In That Day)
    • Close To Treason
  • Brought Before A Number Of Synods
    • Aug. 1726 – Synod of Angus & Mearns
    • Sept. 6, 1726 – Synod Of Dundee
    • Oct. 1727 – Synod of Montrose
    • April, 1728 – Synod Of Angus & Mearns
      • Members Submitted 26 Questions To Glas And His Reply Was Discussed
      • Glas Was Suspended As Presb. Minister
      • Appeal To Gen. Assembly At Edinburgh May 2, 1728
john glas 1695 177372
  • Still More Presbyterian Synods
    • Oct. 17, 1728 – Synod Of Dundee
      • Should They Suspend Or Depose Glas?
      • He Was Deposed
    • Mar. 12, 1730 – Appealed To Highest Presbyterian Court Who Confirmed The Sentence To Depose Him
    • 1739 The General Assembly Broke Precedence And Revoked The Sentence Of Deposition
      • Though It Restored Glas As A Minister, It Did Not Restore Him As A Minister In The Church of Scotland
      • Glas Never Requested This, But Its Happening Showed A Sign Of Softening Against Congregationalism
john glas 1695 177373
John Glas - 1695-1773
  • Last Years Of Ministry
    • 1730 – Continued To Minister To New Tealing Society
    • Moved To Dundee To Support Himself By Opening A Bookstore
    • Moved To Perth In 1733
      • His Independent Reputation Was Not Quickly Accepted
      • When Opening A New Meetinghouse There Some In Town Threw Mud At Attendees
      • George Miller, The Town Clerk Intervened And Kept The Meetinghouse From Destruction
    • 1734 Established A Congregational Church in Edinburgh
      • Met Robert Sandeman There
      • Later Became His Son-In-Law
    • Died November 2, 1773 – 78 Years Old
      • Survived By 15 Children, Wife Died In 1749
      • Most Of Family Buried At Dundee In “Old Howff” Cemetery
robert sandeman 1718 1771
  • Born April 19, 1718
  • Father, David, A Linen Merchant And Magistrate In Perth
  • Attended University Of Edinburgh To Prepare For The Ministry In Church Of Scotland 0 1734
  • As A Youth He Became Acquainted With Glas Ideas
  • 1735 Choosing To Give Up Ministry Idea, He Returned To Perth To Begin An Apprenticeship In Weaving Business
  • 1737 He Married Katherine, Daughter Of John Glas
  • 1740 Set Up A Weaving Business
  • 1756 His Brother Married Another Of Glas’ Daughters
robert sandeman 1718 177176
  • 1744, Age 26 – Became Elder Of Perth Congregational Church
  • Preached For Next 16 Years At Perth, Dundee & Edinburgh
  • 1757 – Wrote 2 Volume Work, Letters On Theron And Aspasio Against James Harvey’s Teachings On Calvinism
    • James Hervey Had Written An Apologetic Of Calvinism Called Theron And Aspasio – 1755
    • As A Result Of Letters On … Many English Congregational Churches Began Appearing
  • 1761 – He And Brother William Went To London To Teach His Congregational Ideas
  • By 1766 Many Congregational Churches Are In England
robert sandeman 1718 177178
  • American Influence
    • 1760 – Letters On Theron And Aspasio Appear In Colonies
    • 1763 – He Receives A Letter Urging A Visit To America
    • August 30, 1764 Sandeman Departs Scotland Arriving In Boston Harbor, Oct. 18, 1764
    • Glas/Sandemanian Churches Established In Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, & Other New England States
  • Sandeman Died In Danbury, Connecticut, April 2, 1771 At 53 Years Of Age, Two Years Before Glas In Scotland
some beliefs of the glasites sandemanians
Some Beliefs Of The Glasites/Sandemanians

Believed They Could Reenact 1st Century Order In Christianity

  • Denied Tenets Of Calvinism
  • Had Lord’s Supper Every Sunday
  • Observed Love Feasts
  • Had Foot-Washings
  • Mutual Exhortations
  • Casting Lots, etc.
robert james haldane

James Haldane1768-1851

Robert & James Haldane
  • 1798 – Started A Church In England After The Glas/Sandeman Order
  • The Tabernacle Church – Beg. 1799 With 310 People
  • L.S. Administered Every Sunday
  • Weekly Collections Taken
  • Operated Schools Throughout England
  • Close Associate To Greville Ewing
  • Associated With Baptists
tabernacle church teaching
Tabernacle Church Teaching
  • N.T. Contained The Pattern For All Christian Service
  • Apostolic Church Model Provided Church Model For All Ages
  • Thus Teaching “Restoration” Or “Restitution”
  • Congregational Autonomy
  • Elders Served In Each Congregation, Teaching & Ruling
  • Each Church Had Its Own Deacons & Minister
  • Civil Authorities Had No Right In Church Matters
  • Weekly Observance Of The Lord’s Supper
  • By 1808 Both Haldanes Believed That Immersion Was The Only Proper Mode Of Baptism
  • Haldanes Differed With Glas Over Discipline, Took A More Loving Approach
greville ewing

Street Where Ewing Lived In Glasgow

Greville Ewing
  • 1767-1841- Born In Edinburgh, Scotland
  • Supported Mission & Congregationalism In Scotland
  • Founding Member & Secretary Of Edinburgh (Later Scotland) Missionary Society, March, 1796
influence of greville ewing

Haldane Church Where Ewing PreachedInGlasgow

Old Glasgow University

Influence Of Greville Ewing
  • Met And Worked With Haldane Brothers Until 1808 Teaching In Schools, Preaching
  • 1800-1839 – Minister Of Mother Church of Scottish Congregationalism, Glasgow, Scotland
  • Instructed At University of Glasgow
  • One Of His Students 1808,1809 Year Was Alexander Campbell