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Infrared Thermal Camera-Based Real-Time Identification and Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(A

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Infrared Thermal Camera-Based Real-Time Identification and Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways. Debao Zhou Department of MIE, UMD June 6, 2014. Objective.

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slide1

Infrared Thermal Camera-Based Real-Time Identification and Tracking of Large Animals to Prevent Animal-Vehicle Crashes(AVCs) On Roadways

Debao Zhou

Department of MIE, UMD

June 6, 2014

slide2
Objective
  • To build a system on roadside to automatically detect the presence of large animals, such as deer, and track their motions for the safe driving on roadways
  • This system can also be installed on cars
slide3
The Problem – Where Are Animals

Animals off road

Cars at low/high speed

Heated objects

Animals off road

Animals on road

Heated objects

the problem road conditions
The Problem – Road Conditions
  • Tree and/or grass,
  • Straight or curved
  • Hill or ditch

Road

Road

Road

Tree

Case 3

Tree

Tree

Tree

Road

Grass

Grass

Hills

or ditches

Case 2

Case 1

Case 4

thermal camera capability
Thermal Camera Capability
  • Temperature sensitivity: up to 14 mK
  • Optical resolution up to 640 by 480 TV Lines
  • Activity detection of adult human size objects up to 8 Km with motorized focal length adjustment
  • Active IR thermal camera and passive IR thermal camera
example
Example:
  • Thermal-Eye 3620AS camera core:
    • FOV 17
    • Range to detect human activity: 1000ft (305m)
    • Real-time 30fps
    • -20°C to 85°C
    • $3500
technical approach
Technical Approach
  • Through the processing of infrared thermal images to detect and track big animals
    • Speed method will be used to distinguish big animals from their environment and high speed cars
    • Pattern matching method will be used to identify big animals from low speed cars
    • Centroid method will be used to track the motion of big animals
  • A mechatronic system with two degrees of freedom will be developed to realize the scanning and tracking by making the camera point to a specific animal
advantages
Advantages
  • Advantages
    • Automatic detection and tracking
    • All-time – day and night
    • Coverage area much bigger than break-the-beam method
  • Usage:
    • On-vehicle
    • Roadside for infrastructure
accomplishments to date
Accomplishments To Date
  • Infrared thermal images have been acquired and analyzed. The results shows that these images can be used to identify the presence of big animals and cars.
  • Pattern matching method has been applied to identify the presence of cars and deer. The algorithm is capable to tell the object is a deer or a car.
  • Tracking has been realized using two degrees of freedom system.
  • A prototype has been built and the scanning and tracking have been realized.
system prototype
System Prototype
  • Camera and image grabbing
  • Stepper motors
  • Enclosure: Contain power supply and motion controller
  • Computer
identification and tracking realization
Identification and Tracking Realization
  • Three main phases:
    • Image acquisition
    • Image processing
    • Motion control

Image acquisition

Image processing

Image center

+

Pixel to step adjustment

Motion control

Motion generation

Position measurement

object identification and tracking
Object Identification and Tracking

Through Centroid and its changing locations:

pattern matching car and big animals
Pattern Matching: Car and Big-animals

Original Patterns

  • Original Images
object identification
Object Identification
  • Processed Images
  • Matched pattern
object identification and tracking in light
Object Identification and Tracking in Light

In light

Three cameras are used:

#1: Thermal camera to take the thermal image and put on computer screen

#2: Normal digital camera to take video of the whole scenario (video on left)

#3: Normal digital camera to take video of the computer screen (video on right)

slide17
Object Identification and Tracking in Dark

In dark, no lights

Three cameras are used:

#1: Thermal camera to take the thermal image and put on computer screen

#2: Normal digital camera to take video of the whole scenario (video on left)

#3: Normal digital camera to take video of the computer screen (video on right)

slide18
Proposed System Setup

Two IR cameras

Animals off road

Cars at low/high speed

Heated objects

Animals off road

Animals on road

Heated objects

proposed study
Proposed Study
  • Speed measurement:
    • 3D distance measurement and distance change with time
    • Off-road big-animal identification from stand-still objects
    • On-road high-speed vehicles identification
  • Development of pattern matching algorithms
    • On-road low speed vehicles identification - tell cars from any big animals when car moves in slow speed
  • Multiple objects tracking
  • Building robust system: electrical, mechanical, suitable for roadside application, low-high temperature, etc.
review on vehicle roadside
Review: On-vehicle / Roadside
  • The Driver
  • Whistles
  • TH-HID Lighting System
  • Forward-collision Sensors
  • Ultrasonic Sensors
  • Radar
  • Camera
  • Auto-identification of humans

in the environment,

Natural habitat prevention

Roadside vegetation control

Electronic mats

Population reduction

Fencing

Deer guards and crosswalks

Underpasses and overpasses

Roadside reflectors

Animal reflectors

Flash light sensing

IR LASER

slide25
Animal Detection System Installed Worldwide:

Area-cover systems and Break-the-beam systems

slide27
System in Calville, WA, USA – Break-the-beam System
  • 20 June 2000
  • Hwy 395 north of Spokane, south of Colville
  • Two lasers, one placed on each side of the road
  • Two standard deer warning signs, two smaller rectangular signs that read “When Flashing”, and two solar powered red flashing beacons
  • Lasers operated on batteries
  • Problems:
    • Clear line-of-sight in the right-of-way
    • Heat in the box
slide28
FLASH System in Nugget Canyon WY USA, IR Sensor (17m-19m)
  • Signs were placed 300 m (327 yd) before the crossing area
  • Sing read:
  • Flashing Light Animal Sensing Host (FLASH)
  • Series of infrared sensors placed at 17-19 m (18.5-20.7 yd) intervals, HW 30; spanned 92m
  • Body heat of large animals
slide29
System in Yellowstone National Park, Montana USA (Break-the-beam)
  • Oct./Nov. 2002;
  • Along a 1,609 m (1 mi) long road section of US Hwy 191
  • Transmitter: microwave RF signal (35.5 GHz) to its intended Receiver
  • Once actived, master station then sends the beacon-on command to the nearest beacons
slide34
Cannot detect the distance/speed of a moving object
    • Cannot distinguish moving animals from moving cars
    • Cannot distinguish sun-heated objects from big-animals
    • Cannot be able to tell that a fast running animal will enter the road.
  • Intrusion detection rate is not acceptable
    • Camrix A.L.E.R.T and Xtralis ADPRO
infrared cameras for monitoring animal activity
Infrared Cameras for Monitoring Animal Activity

Thermacam B1; FLIR (forward-looking infrared) Systems Inc; Boston, Massachusetts

Trailmaster 1500 Active Infrared Trail Monitors; By Goodson and Associates, Inc.; Lenexa, Kansas

FLIR Nightsight Palm IR 250 Digital Camera; Raytheon, Waltham, MA

TM-2500 Trailmonitor; Grypon Engineering, Inc.; Richmond, Michigan

Su320ktx-1.7rt; Goodrich Corporation; Princeton, New Jersey

Hunting Electronics / Military Usage

slide37
Capability of Infrared Cameras
  • Distance, from up to 8 Km for the identification of adult human size objects
  • Temperature: -40F to 100F
  • Resolution: 0.1F
object identification1
Object Identification
  • Original image
  • Processed image
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