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The HISTORY OF THE CLARINET 11 th Grade Music Appreciation Elizabeth Owens THE EVOLUTION OF THE CLARINET HAS OCCURRED IN SIX MAIN STAGES 1. Ancient Instruments 2. The two-key clarinet 3. The five-key clarinet 4. The 13-key clarinet 5. The 17-key clarinet

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the history of the clarinet

The HISTORY OF THE CLARINET

11th Grade Music Appreciation

Elizabeth Owens

slide2
THE EVOLUTION OF THE CLARINET HAS OCCURRED IN SIX MAIN STAGES

1. Ancient Instruments

2. The two-key clarinet

3. The five-key clarinet

4. The 13-key clarinet

5. The 17-key clarinet

6. The modern day clarinet

stage 1 ancient instruments
Stage 1: Ancient Instruments

No one knows the exact history of the clarinet, but all agree that its predecessors date back 5,000 years

The chalumeau

is the most well-known ancestor to the clarinet

-chalumeau is a general term for any small, reed blown pipe

-this instrument was first played 2,000 years ago

-in general, the chalumeau had six holes and was about eight inches long

pictures of other ancient instruments
Pictures of Other Ancient Instruments

Although the chalumeau is the most well-known ancestor to the clarinet, several other cultures used instruments similar to the early clarinet

stage 2 denner the 2 key clarinet
Johann Christoph Denner made several changes to the chalumeau to create the two-key clarinet

-Denner added two keys to the six-hole instrument to create the first “clarinet”

-one of these keys was the register key,

added to increase the number of notes a player could produce

-Denner’s sons later added the bell

to make room for another key-covered hole

-Throughout the early 18th century, Denner and other instrument makers continued to experiment and add keys

Stage 2: Denner & The 2-Key Clarinet
stage 3 the 5 key clarinet
Stage 3: The 5-Key Clarinet

By 1800, most clarinets had 5 or 6 keys

-these keys were not the work of one person, but of several musicians who had become interested in developing the clarinet

-the addition of these keys gave players more flexibility when choosing music

Another important advancement was the addition of a removable mouthpiece

-the chalumeau and the two-key clarinet both had the mouthpiece permanently attached to the instrument

-this advancement was significant because it allowed

mouthpiece to be constructed out of a different material

than the instrument itself

-different materials gave different sounds

stage 4 muller and the 13 key clarinet
Stage 4: Muller and The 13-Key Clarinet

By 1812, Ivan Muller had produced a 13-key clarinet, giving the player many advantages

-a more beautiful tone quality

-less difficulty in musical passages

-more volume control, from a “whisper” to a “shout”

-the ability to fit into the orchestra

stage 5 the 17 key clarinet
Stage 5: The 17-Key Clarinet

Around 1850, Carl Baermann added to the 13-key clarinet and invented the 17-key clarinet

-the addition of these keys fixed many problems of earlier models

-this clarinet had holes placed acoustically, rather than for the player’s comfort

-this clarinet was the most in tune compared to the earlier clarinets

Later, Oskar Oehler (pronounced “oiler”) used Baermann’s design to create his own clarinet system, used by German clarinetists today

stage 6 transition into the modern clarinet
Stage 6: Transitioninto the Modern Clarinet

Since Oehler, nothing major has changed

-Minor changes have been made by Eugene Albert and Louis Buffet, among others

-Albert was dedicated to improving upon Muller’s model

-Buffet took the ideas of the modern flute and applied them to the keywork of the clarinet

Clarinets today:

-have 5 main pieces

-have 17 keys

-are made out of plastic or Grenadilla wood

-are popular orchestral, band, solo, and chamber instruments

review
REVIEW

THE EVOLUTION OF THE CLARINET OCCURRED IN SIX MAIN STAGES:

1. Ancient Instruments

-the chalumeau is the most well-known ancestor to the clarinet

2. The two-key clarinet

-Denner added two keys to the chalumeau to create the first clarinet

3. The five-key clarinet

-by 1800, the clarinet had 5 or 6 keys and a removable mouthpiece

4. The 13-key clarinet

-Muller developed a 13-key model that gave the player a better tone, more flexibility, and more contrast in volume

5. The 17-key clarinet

-Baermann added keys to help fix problems of earlier clarinets

6. The modern day clarinet

-the clarinet did not go through any more major physical changes, but several famous musicians continued to perfect the instrument and create the modern day clarinet

famous clarinetists

Famous Clarinetists

Benny Goodman

Stanley Drucker

Eddie Daniels

Richard Stoltzman

David Shifrin

Larry Combs

slide12
BENNY GOODMAN

STANLEY DRUCKER

- became principal clarinetist of the New York Philharmonic at age 19

- famous jazz clarinetist; known as the “king of swing”

- began to play as a professional musician at 14, then began his recording career at age 17

- is one of the few living orchestral musicians whose biography appears in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

slide13
EDDIE DANIELS

RICHARD STOLTZMAN

- has been a soloist with groups like the Cincinnati Symphony, the Rochester Philharmonic, the Indianapolis Symphony, and the Boston Pops

- has been a soloist with over 100 orchestras

- presented the first clarinet recitals in the histories of both the Hollywood Bowl and Carnegie Hall

- popular jazz and classical clarinetist

slide14
DAVID SHIFRIN

LARRY COMBS

- founding member of the Chicago Chamber Musicians

- principal clarinetist of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra

- professor of music at Yale University

- awarded the Avery Fisher prize in 2000

clarinet recordings
Clarinet Recordings

Sonata in E-flat Major, Allegretto

Saint-Saens

Sonata in F Major, Allegretto Gracioso

Brahms

Concerto for Clarinet in A Major, Adagio

Mozart