The History of Spiritual Care. Catherine O’Connor, CSB, Ph.D. Covenant Health Systems Lexington, MA. Objectives. Participants will understand three historical events which influenced the development of Spiritual Care
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Catherine O’Connor, CSB, Ph.D.
Covenant Health Systems
2. Participants will name three key people and their contribution in shaping the history of spiritual care
3. Participants will be able to name three current strand in the ongoing development of spiritual care
“ The Lord God has given me the tongue of a teacher, that I may know how to sustain the weary with a word. Morning by morning he wakens me to listen like a disciple”(Isaiah 50:4)
“I was ill and you cared for me” (Mt. 25:36)
“I came that you may have life and life to the full” (John 10:10)
“..And he had compassion for them” (Mark 6:34)
“Is there anyone sick among you? He should ask for the presbyters… They in turn are to pray for him, anointing him in the name of the Lord” (James 5)
“The ministry of the cure of souls, or pastoral care, consists of helping acts, done by representative Christian persons, directed towards the healing, sustaining, guiding and reconcilingof troubled persons whose troubles arise in the context of ultimate meanings and concerns.”
Seward Hiltner 1958
Clebsch & Jaekle 1975
to a more practical model
Dr. Cabot Lodge
Rev. Anton Boisen
Dr. Helen Dunbar Flanders
1930s - New England Group
- New York Group
1940s - Institute of Pastoral Care (ICP)
- Council of Clinical Training
- Southern Baptist CPE
- Lutheran Advisory Council
1950 – Development of Standards
1965 – Canadian Council formed
1967 – Strands merged and the Association of
Clinical Pastoral Education formed
1970 - National Association of Catholic
Chaplains formed (NACC)
1988 – COMMISS
2007 – Common Standards
2009 - Spiritual Care Collaborative (SCC)
Think – Learn – Do
Do - Think - Learn
1930s What must I do to be of help?
1940s What must I know to be of help
1950s What must I say to be of help
1960s Who must I be to be of Help
1990’s - Focus on Competencies- personal, professional, spiritual
Arthur Kleinman, MD
Pastoral Care - Pastoral Counseling
Pastoral Counseling - Pastoral Psychotherapy
Pastoral Care - Spiritual Care
Individual Spiritual Direction – Group Spiritual Direction
Individual - Systems
“Spirituality is the aspect of humanity that refers to the way individuals seek and express meaning and purpose and the way they experience their connectedness to the moment, to self, to others, to nature, and to the significant or sacred”.
J. of Palliative Care, Vol. 12, No 10, 2009
www. icsi.org, November 2009
Spiritual Screening: Nurse/Social Worker/
Spiritual History: Physician, Nurse, Social Worker, other clinician
Spiritual Assessment: Chaplain
H: Sources of Hope, meaning, comfort,
O: Member of organized religion
P: Personal Spirituality
E: Effects of beliefs on medical care, end of
(Anandarajah, 2001 [R])
F: Do you have spiritual beliefs or faith
that helped you cope in the past?
I: How do these beliefs influence you?
C: Involvement in religious community
A: How would you like your health care providers to be with you in addressing
spiritual issues and concerns?
(Puchalski, 2000 [R])
S: Spiritual belief system
P: Personal spirituality
I: Integration with a spiritual community
R: Ritualized practices and restrictions
I: Implications for medical care
T: Terminal events planning
(Maugans, 1996 [R])
Four guidelines during times of transition
Clebsch, W. & C. R. Jaekle (1964) Pastoral Care in Historical Perspective. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Dykstra, R.C. (Ed). (2005) Images of Pastoral Care: Classic Readings St. Louis: Chalice Press.
McNeill, J.T. (1951) A History of the Cure of Souls New York: Harper & Row.
O’Connor, T. St. J. “Pastoral Counseling and Pastoral Care: Is There a Difference” . J. of Pastoral Care & Counseling, Spring 2003, Vol. 57, No. 1.
www. icsi.org, November 2009
“ Improving the Quality of Spiritual Care as a Dimension of Palliative
Care: The Report of the Consensus Conference” . J. of Palliative Care,
Vol. 12, No 10, 2009