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THE FORMATION OF MALAYSIA. 16 TH SEPTEMBER 1963. THE MERGING PLAN. The idea to unite Malaysia with neighbouring countries was raised several times. Merger of Singapore suggested in 1955 by David Marshall – rejected by Tunku Abdul Rahman.

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THE FORMATION OF MALAYSIA


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the formation of malaysia

THE FORMATION OF MALAYSIA

16TH SEPTEMBER 1963

slide2

THE MERGING PLAN

  • The idea to unite Malaysia with neighbouring countries was raised several times.
  • Merger of Singapore suggested in 1955 by David Marshall – rejected by Tunku Abdul Rahman.
  • Lee Kuan Yew proposed the idea again in 1959 – unfavorable respond.
the merging plan
THE MERGING PLAN
  • 27th May 1961: Tunku Abdul Rahman suggested the merger of Malaya with:

- Singapore

- North Borneo: Sabah

- Sarawak

- Brunei

reasons
REASONS
  • Political Reasons
  • To curb communist threat
  • To boost and accelerate the independence of Brunei, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak.
  • To create racial harmony
reasons6
REASONS
  • Economy
  • To boost regional economy for people and countries
  • Social

- To create Malaysian nation new identity based on shared cultural heritage

reactions to the proposal
REACTIONS TO THE PROPOSAL
  • Tunku’s proposal triggered different reactions from the people in the five countries.

Singapore

  • Lee Kuan Yew welcomed the idea.
  • However, there was a strong opposition from left-wing leaders: United People’s Party (UPP).
singapore
Singapore
  • People Action Party (PAP) lost in 2 by-elections (1961).
  • Lee Kuan Yew more determined to merge.
brunei
Brunei
  • Initially people not so keen.
  • Preferred Brunei to achieve own independence before joining Malaysia.
  • Some agreed to the idea of merging.
  • Sultan Omar Ali Sarifuddin was interested and thought the idea was excellent.
brunei10
Brunei
  • Strong resistant came from A.M. Azahari – leader of Parti Rakyat Brunei.
  • Own suggestion: to unite Sabah and Sarawak with Brunei.
  • Staged armed revolution in December 1962 but controlled by Sultan with British’s help.
sabah and sarawak
Sabah and Sarawak
  • Received encouraging response from the people.
  • Merging meant independence.
  • Communist threat could be controlled.
  • Contributed to racial balance.
sabah and sarawak12
Sabah and Sarawak
  • Worried about Malayan dominance, not fairly treated by the Malayan people.
  • Non-Malays worried about the status of own religion and language.
  • Sabahan and Sarawakian Chinese worried about the economic competition with Singaporean Chinese.
malaya tanah melayu
Malaya (Tanah Melayu)
  • Support for merging was generally acceptable.
  • Some were skeptical: worried the imbalance of Malay-Chinese ratio.
  • Inclusion of Sabah and Sarawak relieved them.
malaya tanah melayu14
Malaya (Tanah Melayu)
  • PAS leaders claimed Malays would lose out if agreed to the idea – more interested with MAPHILINDO plan.
britain
Britain
  • Despite losing their colony, overall they agreed.
  • Issue of awarding independence repeatedly raised by British officers.
  • Received support from British officers and the people.
  • Several obstacles emerged in the discussion
britain16
Britain
  • Tunku and peers had to convince the British in settling their concerns.
  • Plan almost spoilt: Governors of Sabah and Sarawak claimed people wanted to unite first before merge.
  • Cobbold Commission was formed to assess the opinion of people
harmony entourage to sabah and sarawak june 1961
Harmony Entourage to Sabah and Sarawak (June 1961)
  • Tunku wanted the people to understand the merging concept.
  • Sarawak United People’s Party (SUPP), Sarawak People’ Party (SNAP) and Barisan Rakyat Jati Sarawak (BARJASA) expressed opposition.
harmony entourage to sabah and sarawak june 196119
Harmony Entourage to Sabah and Sarawak (June 1961)
  • United National Kadazan Organization (UNKO)’s leader: Donald Stephens publicly rejected the idea.
  • Tunku promised to give considerable autonomy to lead.
2 visit to brunei july 1961
2. Visit to Brunei (July 1961)
  • A.M. Azahari and his party not interested in merging idea.
  • Sultan formed special committee to assess public’s opinion.
3 singapore conference august 1961
3. Singapore Conference (August 1961)
  • Should be decided by the people.
  • Singapore hold autonomy powers in education and labour.
  • Central government responsible for defense, internal security.
  • A referendum showed than more than 70% people agreed to merger.
4 borneo states meeting november 1961
4. Borneo States’ Meeting (November 1961)
  • A meeting to discuss Borneo’s status as British colony.
  • To assess the people’s reaction towards the merging idea.
  • It too widened English-Malaya defence treaty to protect South East Asia from communism threats.
  • Proposal to assist to review Sultan Brunei’s opinion and to maintain British military base in Singapore.
5 malaysia solidarity consultative committee middle 1961
5. Malaysia Solidarity Consultative Committee (Middle 1961)
  • Was formed when most Borneo’s leaders expressed skepticism.
  • Meeting held to relay true intention and reasons of merging.
  • Received strong support.
6 cobbold commission august 1962
6. Cobbold Commission (August 1962)
  • Was formed to assess the feelings of the Sabahans and Sarawakians.
  • Committee consisted 2 British and 2 Malaysian.
  • Found 70% accepted the idea.
7 inter government committee august 1962
7. Inter Government Committee (August 1962)
  • Was formed to plan the legislative of the new country.
  • Was headed by Lord Landsdowne.
  • Analyzed important matters – the report was accepted by committee as basis to formulate Malaysia.
8 singapore s referendum
8. Singapore’s Referendum
  • Amidst opposition, PAP restore people’s confidence in merging by mentioning these matters:

- promised the people not losing status of citizenship.

- better international economic prospects.

8 singapore s referendum27
8. Singapore’s Referendum

- easier to curb communist threat.

  • Referendum had shown 70% accepted the merging
9 united nation s mission june 1963
9. United Nation’s Mission (June 1963)
  • To assess the acceptance of the Sabahans and Sarawakians.
  • Tunku met President Sukarno and President Macapagal to explicate the idea.
  • Convinced them – the people agreed and accepted the idea.
9 united nation s mission june 196329
9. United Nation’s Mission (June 1963)
  • Referendum reflected positive reaction from the people – authenticate Cobbold’s report.
  • Despite this, Indonesia unwilling to back down on opposition.
malaysia without brunei
Malaysia Without Brunei
  • Brunei’s initial strong wish to join Malaysia did not become a reality.
  • Due to wishes not fulfilled:
malaysia without brunei32
Malaysia Without Brunei
  • Brunei given at least 10 parliamentary seats.
  • Autonomy on oil trade
  • Autonomy in financial
  • Maintain all investments
malaysia without brunei33
Malaysia Without Brunei
  • Maintain low tax rates
  • Continue own education and welfare programme
  • Security guaranteed
  • HRH seniority backdated to the date becoming Sultan not the date Brunei joining Malaysia
malaysia without brunei34
Malaysia Without Brunei
  • Although 6 wishes fulfilled, Sultan decided not to sign agreement.
  • A lost for Peninsula Malaysia and London.
external resistant
External Resistant
  • Two countries opposed to the formation of Malaysia.
the philippines
The Philippines
  • The Philippines claimed Sabah as a part of her.
  • Although the people of Sabah agreed with the merging, Philippines continued to contest.
  • Broke diplomatic relation.
indonesia
Indonesia
  • President Sukarno declared confrontation on Malaysia (Ganyang Malaysia).
  • Reason: Malaya was not consulting her (as a neighbouring country)
  • The formation of Malaysia might weaken the spirit of Malays.
indonesia38
Indonesia
  • Launched military confrontation.
  • 1965: Sukarno was overthrown, replaced by General Suharto
  • August 1966: peace agreement was signed.
withdrawal of singapore
WITHDRAWAL OF SINGAPORE
  • Polarization between Malays and Chinese became obvious.
  • Election 1964: claim of Lee Kuan Yew – belittling MCA leaders.
  • Create conflict between MCA and PAP and UMNO - leaders and people
withdrawal of singapore40
WITHDRAWAL OF SINGAPORE
  • Idea of campaign: all Chinese must support PAP to compel UMNO agreed to PAP’s demand.
  • Racist campaigning created tension led to riot.
  • 27th April 1965: Lee Kuan Yew launched “Malaysia for Malaysian”.
withdrawal of singapore41
WITHDRAWAL OF SINGAPORE
  • Malays angry: proposed “Melayu Bersatu”.
  • Tan Siew Sin and T.H. Tan proposed Singapore to withdraw.
  • 7th August 1965: agreement of withdrawal was signed.
  • 9th August 1965: Singapore officially withdrew and formed a Republic