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The Current State of Cryptographic Election Protocols. Josh Benaloh Microsoft Research. So, you want to hold an election …. Fundamental Decision. You have essentially two paradigms to choose from … Anonymized Ballots Ballotless Tallying. Anonymized Ballots. Ballotless Tallying.

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Presentation Transcript
fundamental decision
Fundamental Decision

You have essentially two paradigms to choose from …

  • Anonymized Ballots
  • Ballotless Tallying
a fundamental trade off
A Fundamental Trade-Off
  • Ballots simplify write-ins and other “non-standard” options.
  • Non-standard options can compromise privacy.
the mix net paradigm
The Mix-Net Paradigm
  • Chaum (1981) …
the mix net paradigm9
The Mix-Net Paradigm

Vote

MIX

Vote

Vote

Vote

the mix net paradigm10
The Mix-Net Paradigm

Vote

MIX

Vote

Vote

Vote

the mix net paradigm11
The Mix-Net Paradigm

Vote

MIX

MIX

Vote

Vote

Vote

the homomorphic paradigm
The Homomorphic Paradigm
  • Benaloh (Cohen), Fischer (1985) …
some principles of election protocols
Some Principles of Election Protocols
  • Privacy
  • Verifiability
  • Robustness
  • Coercibility
privacy
Privacy
  • Only one voter?
  • A unanimous tally?
  • Unanimous less one?
  • Copy cats?
  • Free-form ballots?
verifiability
Verifiability
  • By single trusted party?
  • By trusted committee?
  • By each voter?
  • By observers?
robustness
Robustness
  • Against faulty/malicious voter?
  • Against faulty/malicious trustee?
  • At what cost to privacy?
coercibility
Coercibility
  • Before the vote?
  • During the vote?
  • After the vote?
  • By trustee, voter, or observer?
  • Free-form ballots?
some of the authors
Some of the Authors
  • Mix-Net: Chaum, Fujioka, Okamoto, Ohta, Pfitzmann, Waidner, Park, Itoh, Kurosawa, Michels, Horster, Sako, Kilian, Abe, Hirt, Jakobsson, Juels, Rivest, Furukawa, Neff, Golle, Zhong, Boneh
  • Homomorphic: Benaloh, Fischer, Yung, Tuinstra, Sako, Kilian, Franklin, Cramer, Gennaro, Schoenmakers, Hirt, Kiayias
and the winner is
And the winner is …

The new robust mix-net protocols are practical and offer the most flexibility.

Much recent work has concentrated on efficiency improvements.

Issues remain concerning receipts and coercion.

Practical concerns focus on authentication and system integrity.