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TCOM 5272 Telecomm Lab Dr. Mostafa Dahshan OU-Tulsa 4W 2 nd floor 660-3713 mdahshan@ou.edu Acknowledgments Most of the contents of this presentation are imported from Supplemental materials of the textbook Presentations of Dr. Anindya Das Introduction Course Objectives

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tcom 5272 telecomm lab

TCOM 5272Telecomm Lab

Dr. Mostafa Dahshan

OU-Tulsa 4W 2nd floor

660-3713

mdahshan@ou.edu

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Most of the contents of this presentation are imported from
    • Supplemental materials of the textbook
    • Presentations of Dr. Anindya Das

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

introduction
Introduction
  • Course Objectives
    • Implementation of the theory
    • Improve knowledge in network devices management
    • Introduce some useful software tools
  • Schedule

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

network types
Network Types
  • Local area networks (LANs)
  • Metropolitan area networks (MANs)
  • Wide area networks (WANs)

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

lan local area network
LAN (Local Area Network)
  • Interconnects computers, printers, other equipment
  • Consists of shared hardware and software resources in close physical proximity
  • Example: TCOM Department

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

man metropolitan area network
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
  • Spans a greater distance than a LAN
  • Links multiple LANs within city or metropolitan region
  • Typically uses fiber-optic/wireless connections
  • Example: Campus LAN links to offices outside the campus

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

wan wide area network
WAN (Wide Area Network)
  • Composed of two or more LANs or MANs
  • May have constituent LANs on different continents
  • Example: The Internet

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slide8

NETWORK

TOPOLOGIES

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network topologies
Network Topologies
  • Main topologies:
    • Bus
    • Ring
    • Star
    • Mesh
  • Hybrid topologies
    • star-bus
    • star-ring

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

bus topology
Bus Topology
  • Consists of cables connecting PCs or file servers
  • Visualizes connections as chain links
  • Terminator attached to each end of bus cable segment
  • Media type (discussed later)
    • 10Base5
    • 10Base2

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

bus topology 2
Bus Topology (2)
  • Advantages
    • Requires less cable than other topologies
    • Easy to extend bus with a workstation
  • Disadvantages
    • High management costs
      • Single defective node can take down entire network
    • Can become quickly congested with network traffic

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

ring topology
Ring Topology
  • Continuous data path
    • Workstations attached to cable at points around ring
  • Transmitted data
    • Goes around ring to reach destination
    • Continues until ends at source node

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

ring topology 2
Ring Topology (2)
  • Advantages
    • Easier to manage than bus
    • Handles high volume network better than bus
    • Suited to transmitting signals over long distances
  • Disadvantages
    • Expensive equipment and wiring
    • Fewer equipment options

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

star topology
Star Topology
  • Multiple nodes attached to central device (hub, switch, router)
  • Cable segments radiate from center like a star
  • Example: workstations connected to switch

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

star topology 2
Star Topology (2)
  • Advantages
    • Easier to manage, defective nodes quickly isolated
    • Easier to expand
    • Better equipment and high-speed options
  • Disadvantages
    • Failure of central device may cause network failure
    • Requires more cable than bus

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

mesh topology
Mesh Topology
  • Every node connected to every other node in network
  • Often used in MANs and WANs

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

mesh topology 2
Mesh Topology (2)
  • Advantages
    • Fault tolerance
    • Alternate communication paths
  • Disadvantages
    • Expensive

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slide18

OSI MODEL

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the iso reference model
The ISO Reference Model
  • Fundamental network communications model
  • Product of two standards organizations
    • International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
    • American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
  • OSI is theoretical, not specific hardware or software
  • OSI guidelines analogized to a grammar

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

the iso reference model 2
The ISO Reference Model (2)
  • Accomplishments
    • Enabling communications among LANs, MANs, WANs
    • Standardizing network equipment
    • Enabling backward compatibility to protect investments
    • Enabling development of software and hardware with common interfaces

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

the iso reference model 3
The ISO Reference Model (3)

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layered model
Layered Model
  • Reduces complexity
  • Standardizes interfaces
  • Facilitates modular engineering
  • Ensures interoperable technology
  • Accelerates evolution
  • Simplifies teaching & learning

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

physical layer
Physical Layer
  • Transmit and receive signals
  • Network connectors
  • Signaling and encoding methods
  • Detection of signaling errors
  • Data transfer mediums
    • wire cable
    • fiber optics
    • radio waves

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

data link layer
Data Link Layer
  • Format bits into frames
  • Frame: discrete unit of information
    • Contains control and address information
    • Does not contain routing information
  • Logical Link Control (LLC)
    • Initiates communication between two nodes
  • Media Access Control (MAC)
    • Provides physical addressing
    • Regulates access to the media

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

network layer
Network Layer
  • Packet logical addressing
  • Path determination
  • Route optimization
  • Addressing is done through routed protocols: IP, IPX, AppleTalk, DECnet
  • Path Selection is done using routing protocols: RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, BGP

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

transport layer
Transport Layer
  • Provides transparent flow of data
  • End-to-end recovery
  • Flow control and error control
  • Data segmentation
  • Ensures data received in order

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

session layer
Session Layer
  • Manages dialog between applications
  • Establishes, manages, terminates sessions
  • Determines communication type
    • Simplex
    • Half-duplex
    • Full-duplex

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

presentation layer
Presentation Layer
  • Provides data representation and code formatting
  • Translates between character codes
  • Compression and encryption
  • Example: Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

application layer
Application Layer
  • Provides network services to applications
    • Remote access to printers
    • Message handling for electronic mail
    • Terminal emulation

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

internet standards
Internet Standards
  • Specifications of network technologies
  • Ratified by the IETF
  • Begins as
    • Internet Draft (ID)
    • Request For Comments (RFC)
  • Not all RFCs are standards

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

internet standards 2
Internet Standards (2)
  • Examples of full standard RFCs
    • RFC 791: Internet Protocol
    • RFC 793: Transmission Control Protocol
    • RFC 959: File Transfer Protocol
  • Full List www.apps.ietf.org/rfc/stdlist.html

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

slide32

PHYSICAL

LAYER

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media types
Media Types
  • Coaxial cable: copper wire
  • Twisted-pair cable: copper wire
  • Fiber-optic cable: glass or plastic
  • Wireless: radio or microwaves

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

coaxial cables
Coaxial Cables
  • Used in bus topologies
  • 10Base5 (thicknet, thickwire, RG8)
  • 10Base2 (thinnet, thinwire)

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

10base5
10Base5
  • Transmission rate of 10 Mbps
  • Longest cable run 500 m
  • Two transmission types
    • Baseband: single channel
    • Broadband: multiple nodes on multiple channels

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

10base5 2
10Base5 (2)
  • Has relatively large 0.4-inch diameter
  • Copper or copper-clad aluminum conductor at core
  • Conductor surrounded by insulation
  • Aluminum sleeve wrapped around insulation
  • PVC or Teflon jacket covers aluminum sleeve

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

10base5 3
10Base5 (3)

10BASE5 vampire tap MAU transceiverSource: Wikimedia

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

10base2
10Base2
  • Maximum speed 10Mbps
  • Wire up to 185 meters (almost 200)
  • Used for baseband data transmission

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

10base2 2
10Base2 (2)
  • Attached to bayonet connector (BNC)
  • BNC connected to T-connector
  • Middle of T-connector attached to NIC
  • Terminator may be attached to one end of T-connector

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

twisted pair cables
Twisted Pair Cables
  • Contains pairs of insulated copper wires
  • Outer insulating jacket covers wires
  • Communication specific properties
    • Copper wires twisted to reduce EMI and RFI
    • Length: up to 100 meters
    • Transmission speed: up to 10 Gbps

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

twisted pair cables 2
Twisted Pair Cables (2)
  • RJ-45 plug-in connector attaches cable to device
    • Less expensive and
    • more flexible than T-connectors

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

twisted pair cables 3
Twisted Pair Cables (3)
  • Two Types
    • Shielded (STP)
    • Unshielded (UTP)

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

shielded twisted pair stp
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
  • Surrounded by braided or corrugated shielding
  • Shield reduces interference (EMI, RFI)
  • Interval of twists in each pair should differ
  • Connectors, wall outlets should be shielded
  • Have proper grounding
  • Used in strong interference environment
  • Expensive cable and equipment

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

unshielded twisted pair utp
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
  • Consists of wire pairs within insulated outer covering
  • No shield between wires and encasement
  • Most frequently used network cable
  • Reducing EMI and RFI
    • Twist interior strands (like STP)
    • Build media filter into network equipment

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

unshielded twisted pair utp 3
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)(3)
  • Fewer points of failure
  • Has no shield that can tear (up through Category 5e)
  • Connectors and wall outlets do not need shielding
  • Proper grounding not as critical to purity of signal

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

fiber optic cables
Fiber-Optic Cables
  • Glass or plastic fiber cores encased in glass tube (cladding)
  • Fiber cores and cladding are surrounded by PVC cover
  • Signal transmissions consist light (usually infrared)

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

fiber optic cables 2
Fiber-Optic Cables (2)
  • Advantages
    • Transmission speeds from 100 Mbps to over 100 Gbps
    • No EMI or RFI problems
      • Data travels by light pulse
    • Low attenuation
    • Secure from unauthorized taps

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

fiber optic cables 3
Fiber-Optic Cables (3)
  • Disadvantages
    • Fragile
    • Expensive
    • Requires specialized training to install
    • Cannot be used for analog communications

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

fiber optic cables 4
Fiber-Optic Cables (4)
  • Single-mode
    • Used for long-distance communication
    • 8-10/125 µm cable transmits one wave at a time
    • Communications signal is laser light
  • Multimode
    • Supports multiple waves (broadband)
    • Comes in two varieties
      • step index
      • graded index
    • Cable diameter between 50 and 115 microns
    • Source for multimode cable is LED

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

fiber optic cables 5
Fiber-Optic Cables (5)
  • Connector types
    • Subscriber Connector (SC)
    • Straight Tip (ST)
    • And others…

Source: Wikimedia

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

slide52

LAB

ACTIVITIES

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

activity 1 6 viewing network links in windows
Activity 1-6: Viewing Network Links in Windows
  • Time Required : 5–10 minutes
  • Objective: View the Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP LAN and WAN connection options.
  • Description: View the logical links between various types of networks—including dial-up and VPNs—joined through Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP Professional.

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

activity 1 7 determining network connectivity in unix linux
Activity 1-7: Determining Network Connectivity in UNIX/Linux
  • Time Required: 5 minutes
  • Objective: Viewing LAN and WAN connectivity in UNIX/Linux.
  • Description: View network connectivity in Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which is already configured with the X Window GNOME interface.

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

activity 2 3 viewing a nic s physical address
Activity 2-3: Viewing a NIC’s Physical Address
  • Time Required: 5–10 minutes
  • Objective: Determine the physical address of the NIC in a computer.
  • Description: Provides an opportunity to determine the physical address of a network interface card (NIC) in a computer. You need access to a computer that is connected to a network and that runs Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Fedora, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux. For Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you need to use the root account.

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

activity 2 6 viewing network objects using the windows redirector
Activity 2-6: Viewing Network Objects Using the Windows Redirector
  • Time Required: 5–10 minutes
  • Objective: Use the Microsoft Windows redirector.
  • Description: The Microsoft Windows redirector is one example of the Application layer (Layer 7) at work. In this activity, you view computers, shared folders, and shared printers through a Microsoft-based network, which are made accessible, in part, through the redirector. Your network needs to have at least one workgroup (or domain) of computers, shared folders, and shared printers to fully view the work of the redirector.

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

activity 4 1 comparing different cable types
Activity 4-1: Comparing Different Cable Types
  • Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes
  • Objective: Compare coax, twisted-pair, and fiber-optic cable.
  • Description: You will better understand your network if you understand the physical differences among cable types. You will also be better able to design a new network or upgrade a legacy network. In this activity, you compare the flexibility and appearance of coaxial, twisted-pair, and fiber-optic cable.

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

activity 4 2 comparing cable connectors
Activity 4-2: Comparing Cable Connectors
  • Time Required: Approximately 10 minutes
  • Objective: Compare connectors for different cable types.
  • Description: Each type of cable uses different kinds of connectors. This activity enables you to see the kinds of connectors used for different cable mediums.

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

activity 4 4 building a utp cable
Activity 4-4: Building a UTP Cable
  • Time Required: Approximately 20–30 minutes
  • Objective: Experience building a UTP cable.
  • Description: In this activity, you attach 4-pair UTP cable to an RJ-45 connector. You need the cable, a crimper, a connector, and a wire stripper. These instructions and Figure 4-6 follow the EIA/TIA-568-B standard.

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272

slide60

HOMEWORK

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homework
Homework
  • Activities
    • Chapter 1: 1-8
    • Chapter 2: 2-1
  • Problems
    • Chapter 2: 1,2,4,8,9,11,14,15,16,17
    • Chapter 4: 1,2,6,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,18,20

M. Dahshan - TCOM5272