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SYLLABUS OF “INSTRUMENT”. SYLLABUS OF “INSTRUMENT”. INSTRUMENT. FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS. FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS. The standard flight panel comprises the following basic Instruments :- 1. Air Speed Indicator (ASI) 2. Altimeter 3. Artificial Horizon

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Instrument l.jpg

INSTRUMENT

FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS


Flight instruments l.jpg
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS

The standard flight panel comprises the following basic Instruments :-

  • 1. Air Speed Indicator (ASI)

  • 2. Altimeter

  • 3. Artificial Horizon

  • 4. Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) and Rate of Climb/Descent Indicator (RCDI)

  • 5. Compass

  • 6. Turn and Slip Indicator (TSI)Cont’d



Air speed indicator asi l.jpg
AIR SPEED INDICATOR (ASI)

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to indicate the speed at which the aircraft is moving through the air.


Air speed indicator asi8 l.jpg

It registers the speed of the air striking the aircraft from reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

AIR SPEED INDICATOR (ASI)


Air speed indicator asi9 l.jpg
AIR SPEED INDICATOR (ASI) reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE:-

    It is work on the Principle of “Differential Pressure between Dynamic and Static Pressure”


Altimeter l.jpg
ALTIMETER reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to indicate the altitude of the aircraft at all times.

    It registers height above any datum like ground or sea level in terms of meters. Cont’d


Altimeter11 l.jpg
ALTIMETER reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE :-

    It is work on the Principle of “ANEROID CAPSULE”.


Altimeter12 l.jpg
ALTIMETER reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:-

    The capsule is fitted inside the airtight case. Static Pressure from Pitot Head is fed inside the case. When pressure inside the case decrease the flexible aneroid capsule expand and vise versa.

    Cont’d


Altimeter13 l.jpg
ALTIMETER reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:-

    Expansion and compression of capsule due to variation in Pressure as a mechanical movement is made use of to deflect the pointer over the Dial through sector and gears to indicate altitude of the aircraft.


Artificial horizone l.jpg
ARTIFICIAL HORIZONE reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE:-

    It is work on the Principle of “GYROSCOPE”


Artificial horizone15 l.jpg
ARTIFICIAL HORIZONE reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE :-

    It is used to indicate continuous attitude of the aircraft in respect of the natural Horizon (In the lateral and longitudinal axis).

    It can also make out if the aircraft is flying level and straight flight.


Vertical speed indicator vsi l.jpg

VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.(VSI)


Vsi displays l.jpg
VSI DISPLAYS reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.


Vertical speed indicator vsi18 l.jpg
VERTICAL reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to indicate the vertical speed of the aircraft in terms of thousand of feet or meters per minute.


Rate of climb descent indicator rcdi l.jpg
RATE OF CLIMB/DESCENT reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.INDICATOR(RCDI)

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is mainly used in climbing or descending at specified rate to ensure arrival at a predetermined level or let down through cloud or an instrument landing. Cont’d


Slide20 l.jpg

VSI/RCDI reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE:-

    It is work on the Principle of “ Pressure Tapped from and in conjunction with ASI and Altimeter”.


Compass l.jpg
COMPASS reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to give continuous indication of the aircraft heading.

    In order to ensure correct navigation, the aircraft is provided with a compass.


Compass22 l.jpg
COMPASS reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE:-

    The magnetic compass works on the principle of “MAGNETIC NORTH SEEKING”.


Slide23 l.jpg

TURN AND SLIP INDICATOR (TSI) reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to indicate to the Pilot the movement of the aircraft in rolling and yawing planes.Cont’d


Turn and slip indicator tsi l.jpg
TURN AND SLIP INDICATOR (TSI) reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

It consists of two separate instruments contained in one case.

(1) Turn Indicator

(2) Slip Indicator


Turn indicator l.jpg
TURN INDICATOR reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to indicate the rate of turn, either left or right, about the vertical axis of the aircraft.


Turn indicator26 l.jpg
TURN INDICATOR reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE:-

    It is work on the Principle of“GYROSCOPIC”.Cont’d


Slip indicator l.jpg
SLIP INDICATOR reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to indicate lateral level while the aircraft is in straight and level flight and the amount of slip and skid when the aircraft is turning.


Slip indicator28 l.jpg
SLIP INDICATOR reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE:-

    It is work on the Principle of“PENDULUM”.


Pitot head l.jpg
PITOT HEAD reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    This system is used to respond to the dynamic and static pressure during the flight and supply these pressure to the aneroid cell instrument for their function. Cont’d


Dynamic pressure l.jpg
DYNAMIC PRESSURE reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is produced by the forward motion of the aircraft to operate various pressure operated Instrument like ASI, Mach meter etc.


Static pressure l.jpg
STATIC PRESSURE reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is the atmospheric pressure picked up from surrounding air, when aircraft in motion.

    OR


Static pressure32 l.jpg
STATIC PRESSURE reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is still pressure surrounding the aircraft in while in motion. It is fed through static vents to operate the suction operated instrument like – ASI, Altimeter, Mach meter etc.


Engine performance instrument system l.jpg
ENGINE PERFORMANCE reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.INSTRUMENT SYSTEM

  • INTRODUCTION:-

    Engine instrument are continuously monitoring the performances of the aircraft engine during flying or ground run.


Engine performance instrument system34 l.jpg
ENGINE PERFORMANCE reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.INSTRUMENT SYSTEM

The Engine performance instruments are as follows:

  • 1. Engine RPM measuring system

  • 2. Fuel flow Indicator & Transmitter

  • 3. Oil pressure Indicator & TransmitterCont’d


Engine rpm measuring system l.jpg
ENGINE RPM MEASURING SYSTEM reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE OF TACHO INDICATOR:-

    This system is used for providing continuous indication of RPM of low &high pressure (Engine) rotor shaft to the Pilot in terms of percentage with in the range of 0 to 110%.

    Cont’d


Tacho indicator l.jpg
TACHO INDICATOR reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE:-

    It is work on the Principle of“MAGNETIC INDUCTION”. Cont’d


Tacho generator l.jpg
TACHO GENERATOR reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to generate three phase AC voltage, whose frequency is proportional to the engine compressor shaft RPM and is fed to the Tachometer. Cont’d


Fuel flow indicator l.jpg
FUEL FLOW INDICATOR reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE :-

    It is used to provide continuous indication of the fuel quantity remained in the aircraft fuel tanks. Cont’d


Fuel flow transmitter l.jpg
FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTER reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to generate the electrical pulses proportional to the quantity of fuel passed through it.


Fuel flow transmitter40 l.jpg
FUEL FLOW TRANSMITTER reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE:-

    It is work on the Principle of “PULSE INDUCTION”.

    Cont’d


Oil pressure indicator l.jpg
OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to provide continuous indication of the pressure in engine lubricating system to the Pilot.


Oil pressure transmitter l.jpg
OIL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PURPOSE:-

    It is used to provide electrical signal proportional to the pressure in the lubricating system.


Oil pressure transmitter43 l.jpg
OIL PRESSURE TRANSMITTER reading of Dynamic Pressure registered by the Pitot Head. Its registers only Indicated Air Speed (IAS) which varies substantially with differences in Altitude and Temperature.

  • PRINCIPLE:-

    It is work on the Principle of “MAGNETIC INDUCTION”.