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Principles of Exercise Prescription. Mr. Cheng Yuk Chuen, Joshua Director of Training Program, Hong Kong Physical Fitness Association. Principles of training. Overload-stimulus greater than normal Adaptation-level of training Specificity-specific to system and muscle

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principles of exercise prescription

Principles of Exercise Prescription

Mr. Cheng Yuk Chuen, Joshua

Director of Training Program,

Hong Kong Physical Fitness Association

principles of training
Principles of training
  • Overload-stimulus greater than normal
  • Adaptation-level of training
  • Specificity-specific to system and muscle
  • Progression-increase intensity and design the training sequence
an exercise session
An Exercise Session
  • Warm-up Period (5’-10’)
  • Conditioning Period(20’-60’)
    • Aerobic Exercise (Optional recreational game)
    • Muscular Strength & Endurance
    • Stretching Exercise
  • Cool-down Period(5’-10’)
purpose of warm up
Purpose of Warm-up
  • Prepare body for more strenuous exercise
  • Facilitates the transition from rest to exercise
    • Improve blood circulation
    • Increase the metabolic rate
    • Increase body temperature
    • Dissociates more oxygen
    • Stretch postural muscles
    • Reduce risk of musculo-skeletal injury
purpose of conditioning
Purpose of Conditioning
  • Develop cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Improve heart health and weight control
  • Maintain and improve muscle tone, strength and muscle mass
  • Maintain and improve muscle elasticity and joint mobility.
  • Prevention of musculo-skeletal disorder such as low back pain and shoulder osteo-arthritis
purpose of cool down
Purpose of Cool-down
  • Gradual recovery from the endurance phase:
    • Adjust the circulatory response (e.g. HR and BP)
    • Improve venous return risk of post-exercise hypotension and dizziness
    • Reduce risk of cardiovascular complications(e.g. sudden cardiac death)
components of exercise prescription
Components of Exercise Prescription
  • Exercise Mode (Type of exercise)
  • Exercise Intensity
  • Exercise Duration
  • Exercise Frequency
  • Progression of Exercise Programme
exercise mode
Exercise Mode
  • Any form of physical activity which uses large muscle groups.
  • Examples: walking, jogging, running, biking, stepping, rowing, etc.
exercise intensity
Exercise Intensity
  • Low to Moderate
  • RPE 2-5 (weak to strong)
  • HR Formula 1
    • THR = HRmax X (35% - 69%)

where HRmax = 220 – Age

  • HR Formula 2
    • THR = HRR X (20% - 59%) + Resting HR

where HRR = HRmax – Resting HR

rating of perceived exertion rpe
Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE)

Rating Perception Level of Intensity

0 Nothing at all No intensity

1 Very weak

2 Weak Light

3 Moderate

4 Somewhat strong

5 Strong Heavy


7 Very Strong

10 Extremely Strong Strongest Intensity

exercise duration
Exercise Duration
  • 20-60 minutes/sesssion
  • Continuous or intermittent

(10 min. each bout)

exercise frequency
Exercise Frequency
  • For moderate intensity, at least 3 days/week
  • For lower intensity, more than 3 days/week is required
guidelines for aerobic exercise
Guidelines for aerobic exercise
  • Goal: reach 50th percentile in fitness parameters
  • Minimal threshold (20% HRR or 50% HRmax) may sufficient for low areobic fitness adult (VO2max<30 mL/kg/min)
  • 60-80% HRR or 77-90% HRmax are sufficient for improvements in most adults’ CR fitness
  • HRR method is more accurately for prescribing intensity
  • 150-400kcal exercise energy expenditure per day
muscular training principle
Muscular training principle
  • Strength Training Exercise or

Resistance Exercise

  • Rhythm breathing
  • Full range of motion
  • Speed of lifting
  • Balance of training
  • Resistance mode: machine weights, free weight, rubber band or body weight
exercise intensity19
Exercise Intensity
  • Weights that are heavy enough to be lifted for 8 – 12 repetitions (reps.)
exercise duration20
Exercise Duration
  • 8-10 exercise for body major muscle groups
  • Each exercise lifts 8-12 reps.(1 Set)
  • 10-20 minutes per session
exercise frequency21
Exercise Frequency
  • At least 2 training sessions per week
  • Start with low intensity with 1 set per session
  • Gradually build up every 10-12 weeks
exercise mode24
Exercise Mode
  • Static muscle stretching exercise
  • 5’-10’ low-intensity large muscle activity (eg. Brisk walking, jog slowly)
  • Can be a specific flexibility training session
  • Can be combined into the warm up and cool down phase
  • Dynamic or Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation as progressive mode
exercise intensity25
Exercise Intensity
  • Stretch the muscle to feel mild discomfort or feel tight but no pain

Corbin and Lindsey (1997) p.83

exercise duration27
Exercise Duration
  • Hold each muscle stretch for 10-30 seconds
  • Do it for all major muscle groups
exercise frequency28
Exercise Frequency
  • At least 3 times per week
  • Stretch before and after exercise


Not required!

art of exercise prescription
Art of Exercise Prescription
  • Exercise prescriptions require individual modification, Individual difference: physiologic and perceptual responses vary among individual
  • Exercise intensity, duration and training progression should be adjusted with monitoring BP, HR and RPE.
  • Individual interests, abilities and limitations should be addressed on preparing desired program outcomes.
  • Pair work
  • Fill up the first page of the information and questionnaire provided for your partner
  • Base on the information provided by your partner, try to write the exercise prescription (page 2) to him/her
  • Follow the exercise prescription from your partner and fill up the exercise record (page 3&4) for 1 month
  • Write the overall comment for your partner

Exercise Prescription Training Course PracticumConsultant’s Name: __________________________Patient’s Name: Age: Date : Gender: Weight: kg Height: cm


是 否 問 題

1. 醫生曾否說過你的心臟有問題,以及只可進行醫生建議的體能活動?

2. 你進行體能活動時,是否感到胸口痛?

3. 過去一個月,你曾否在沒有進行體能活動時也感到胸口痛?

4. 你曾否因感到暈眩而失去平衡,或曾否失去知覺?

5. 你的骨骼或關節是否有毛病?且會因改變體能活動而惡化?

6. 醫生現時是否有給你一些有關血壓或心臟藥物(例如去水丸)給你服用?

7. 是否有其他理由令你不應進行體能活動?

Risk Factors Identification:

是 否 Risk Factors

1. Family History

2. Smoking

3. Hypertension

4. Hypercholestrolemia

5. Obesity

6. Inactivity

7. High blood glucose

8. High HDL (negative risk factor)Total Score of Risk: ____________ Risk Classification: __________________

Other History and Consideration:



Thank You